Table 1: Radiation protection efforts to limit exposure to scattered radiation are viewed from the analysis point of view of the room.


Protection Effort

Source Radiation

Proof Effectiveness Protection


Arizal, et al., 2017 [9]

Distance and voltage source radiation

Aircraft Medical mobile X-ray general

Radiation dose value is affected by distance, voltage

The results of the largest radiation dose rate on wall A with a voltage of 60 kV and a distance of 160 cm. This can be caused by high voltage and close proximity to the radiation source.

Rahmayani, et al., 2020 [1]

Distance, position, tension, and thickness shield.

Aircraft Medical X- Rays general

The radiation dose value is influenced by distance, direction and stress, as well as wall thickness.

The largest radiation dose is on the right side of the plane with a distance of 1 m and a voltage of 60 kV. Radiation retaining walls absorb radiation doses very well so that the dose rate is not detectable outside the room.

Tulfala & Kasman , 2020 [4]

Distance and altitude with analysis contour isodose

Aircraft TOSHIBA

brand X-ray model E7242X SN 14A927

medicine general

Increasing altitude and distance can reduce the rate of radiation dose exposure

At an altitude of 1,613 m, the radiation dose rate is smaller than the height of 1,113 m and radiation officers will be safer if they are at a distance of more than 3 meters from the radiation source.

Astuti, et al., 2018 [2]

Distance, position and voltage

CT scan

The further distance and position will reduce the radiation dose

The largest radiation dose on the front side is 1.43 nSv/h with a voltage of 135 kV and a distance of 0 m.

Putri and

Sudiyono, 2018 [18]

Distance and

restraint radiation

CT Scan

Distance and radiation barrier can affect the absorbed radiation dose

The highest radiation leakage is at point A, which is a glass made of lead in the operator's room at 29.5 Sv/hour.

Rochmayanti D, et al., 2018


Effectiveness Wall retaining and installation signs warning radiation

Aircraft Medical X- Rays general

The greater the effectiveness of the retaining wall, the smaller the leakage


Radiation danger signs make people more careful

The effectiveness of the entire retaining wall is 99%, but there is one retainer which results in 91%, namely the Pb glass frame at the Mental Hospital (RSJ).


Radiation danger signs installed include radiation danger signs/logos, red lights during X-ray examinations and radiation warnings for pregnant women.

Hasmawati, et al., 2016 [20]

Distance altitude, position, tension

Aircraft Medical X- Rays general

The radiation dose value is influenced by distance, position and voltage.

The largest radiation dose rate is on the left side of the aircraft, which is 3600 Sv/h

Ancila C & Hidayanto E, 2016 [11]


Dental Panoramic

The farther the distance from the radiation source, the smaller the measured radiation dose

Radiation exposure in the operator's office is 0.583 mR/h or 5.83 Sv/h.


X-ray radiation was not detected in the employee corridor during exposure.


Radiation exposure in the waiting room is 0.24 mR/h or 2.4 Sv/h

Sutejo R & Daryati S, 2016 [13]

Design room and thickness Wall shield

Aircraft panoramic medical tooth

The thicker or denser the radiation shield structure, the less radiation that can pass through the screen

The walls are made of red brick with ceramic thickness of 30 cm in accordance with the provisions of PERMENKES.No.1014.MENKES/SK/XI/2008 regarding the requirements for examination rooms.

Anugrah NA, et al., 2018

Distance and voltage

Medical Barracuda X-ray multimeter general

The radiation dose value is influenced by distance and voltage.

The point/safe distance from the radiation source by a radiation officer and the general public is 5 m from the radiation source.