Table 1: Clinical trials of MSC therapy for diabetes

Type of Diabetes Type of transplanted cells Follow-up Outcome Reference
1 Newly diagnosed T1DM (n=20) NCT01068951 Autologous MSC blood C-peptide level in response to a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) during 1-year follow-up preserved or even increased C-peptide peak value in TX group loss in both C-peptide peak values in control group [62]
2 Newly onset T1DM (n=29) Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells both the HbA1c and C peptide level during next 21 months Better level of both HbA1c and C peptide [59]
3 T1DM (n=15) Autologous umbilical cord blood infusion followed by 1 year of supplementation with vitamin D and docosahexaenoic acid C-peptide level; CD4/CD8 ratio The absolute rate of C-peptide decline was slower in treated subjects but failed to reach significance. CD4/CD8 ratio remained stable in treated subjects. [58]
4 T1DM (n=3) Autologous bone marrow stem cell (liver puncture) HbA1c ,c-peptide level, Islets Cells Antibody (ICA), Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) and insulin antibody In two treated patients: negative value in ICA, GAD and anti insulin antibody levels, with an increased levels of c peptide and decreased levels of HbA1c. [61]
5 T1DM (n=15); median diabetic history was 8 years Stem Cell Educator (Separated lymphocytes from the peripheral whole blood co-cultured with adherent cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells. returned to the patient's circulation Blood C-peptide, HbA1c, daily dose of insulin. Immunological monitoring during 40 weeks markedly improve C-peptide levels, reduce the HbA1C values, decrease the daily dose of insulin increased expression of co-stimulating molecules (CD28 and ICOS), increases in the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, and restoration of Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine balance [66]
6 T1DM (n=15) NCT00315133 Autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Decrease in insulin requirement became insulin free with normal levels of glycated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) during a mean 18.8-month follow-up [67]
7 T1DM NCT00690066 PROCHYMAL® (Ex Vivo Cultured Adult human mesenchymal stem cells) both the HbA1c and C peptide level The study is Finished in 2014 but the data is not published
8 T2DM (n=18) Umbilical cord MSC FPG, PBG, HbA1c, C-peptide, and Treg were followed up in the first, third, and sixth month FBG and PBG of the patients in TX group were significantly reduced. Plasma C-peptide levels and Treg cell number in the TXgroup were numerically higher but did not reach significance (p > 0.05). [63]
9 T2DM with triple oral antidiabetic drug failure and requiring insulin ≥0.4 IU per kg per day (n=21) Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell End point: a reduction in insulin requirement by ≥50% from baseline while maintaining HbA1c < 7% 12 months significant decrease in the insulin dose requirement along with an improvement in the stimulated C-peptide levels [68]
10 T2DM with failure of triple oral antidiabetic drugs, and on insulin (>0.7 U/kg/day) (n=10) Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell Decrease in insulin requirement by ≥50% Significant reduction in insulin requirement (60% of patients), significant improvement in glucagon-stimulated C-peptide level [69]
11 Diabetic patients with critical limb ischaemia (n=7) Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), from granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilised peripheral blood neurological signs, wound healing and the rate of lower-limb amputation Pain was significantly reduced; ankle-brachial index and the pulse strength were significantly improved; , lower limb amputation [70]
12 T2DM (n=118) Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (injected into the patient's pancreas) HbA1c and C-peptide level HbA1c and C-peptide in TX group were significantly improved [60]
13 T2D (n=10) human placenta-derived MSC Decreased daily mean dose of insulin Increased -peptide level, renal function and cardiac function were improved [71]
14 T2D critical limb ischemia and foot ulcer (n=41) Bonemarrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMS), Bonemarrow-derived mononuclear cells improvements in limb perfusion painless walking time ;ankle-brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure were more improved in BMMS group [72]
15 T2DM for >5 years with failure of triple oral antidiabetic drugs, and on insulin (> or = 0.7 U/kg/day) (n=10) Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell End point: a reduction in insulin requirement by ≥50% from baseline and improvement in glucagon-stimulated C-peptide levels Significant reduction in insulin requirement, significant improvement in both fasting and glucagon-stimulated C-peptide level [73]
T2DM: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; T1DM: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; PBG: Postprandial Blood Glucose; regulatory T cells: Treg; Treated Group: TX group; HbA1C: Glycated Hemoglobin A1C