International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases is a peer reviewed, open access journal focused on clinical areas of cardiovascular medicine. The Journal provides the authors a platform for publication of their work and for the exchange of their ideas. We aim to publish utmost quality clinical content via open access providing the readers to immediately access without charge. The journal publishes original communications of scientific excellence concerned with clinical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases focused to publish articles on topics, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiogenic shock, cardiomyopathy, cardiopulmonary bypass, carotid atherosclerotic plaques, congestive heart failure, endocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, interventional cardiology, ischemia, mitral valve stenosis, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, pericarditis, stroke, tachycardia, venous thrombosis, venous thrombus, etc. All articles published in the journal are subject to standard peer review process. The journal publishes the latest findings in cardiovascular medicine, cardiovascular diseases and observational studies.

All articles are published only after close scrutinizing by expert editors and reviewer recommendations being amended for improved flawless content. International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases ensures the maintenance of international standards of open access publishing.

Journal Information

Title: International Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases

ISSN: 2643-3966

Editor-in-chief: Richard Kones

NLM title abbreviation: Int Arch Cardiovasc Dis

ISO abbreviation: Int Arch Cardiovasc Dis

Other titles: IACVD

Category: Cardiovascular Diseases

DOI: 10.23937/2643-3966

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710058

Complications of a Giant Left Atrium - Extensive Thrombus Formation Despite Therapeutic Anticoagulation

Charles Croughan, MD, Balaj Rai, MD, Zachary Gilbert, MD, William David Nickell PA-C, Nathaniel Dittoe, MD, Brian Schwartz, MD and Peter Pavlina, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/09/11

Left atrial thrombus (LAT) formation is a feared complication of atrial fibrillation, as it can lead to thromboembolic stroke or thromboembolism to another peripheral region causing ischemia. Despite therapeutic anticoagulation, recurrence of thrombi is still possible, although unlikely. Prevention strategies may include reducing left atrial size along with treatment by surgical removal. We present a case of a patient with a large left atrial thrombus in the setting of previous mitral valve sten...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710057

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? Think Again, PRKAG2 Syndrome

Juan Linares, MD, Charles Croughan, MD, Damian Valencia, MD, Rehan Ahmed, MD and Vaskar Mukerji, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/09/10

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy and myocyte disarray that increases the risk of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. HCM phenocopies are disease entities sharing a left ventricular hypertrophy phenotype but arising from a different pathologic mechanism. Patients with PRKAG2 syndrome (PS), a glycogen storage disease, are often misdiagnosed as having HCM. Clinicians must be familiar with red flags alerting to the possibility of this important di...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710055

Emergent TAV-in-TAV Following Acute Hemolytic Anemia Secondary to Undersized Transcatheter Heart Valve Prosthesis

Agata Sularz, MB BChir MA(Cantab.), Hashrul Rashid, MBBS(Hons), PhD, Jane Hancock, MB ChBPhD, Nikolaos Papamichael, MD, PhD, Bernard Prendergast, BMBS, DM, Simon Redwood, MBBS, MD and Tiffany Patterson, MBBS, BSc, PhD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/05/13

Paravalvular leak (PVL) driven intravascular hemolysis (IVH) is a recognized complication of surgical aortic valve replacement. This has been described less following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAV). We present a case of a patient with severe life-threatening hemolytic anemia following TAV, requiring multiple blood transfusions, and emergent TAV-in-TAV procedure....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710054

Cardiovascular Disease as a Chronic Sequel to COVID-19: A Case Report

Oscar Rene Vazquez Melo, Ramon Eduardo Garcia Cahuich, Jose Julián Sosa Rodriguez and María Valeria Jiménez Báez

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 26, 2023

COVID-19 infection has shown cardiovascular involvement, particularly when it has a moderate to severe presentation. This alteration has been manifested in arrhythmias, myocarditis, and acute myocardial infarction, among others; persistence of these cardiovascular alterations in the short and medium term has been documented. In Latin America there are no reports of long-term cardiovascular sequelae. We present the case of a 46-year-old female with no previous history of cardiovascular disease wh...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710053

Persistence of Stress Related Left Ventricular Filling Abnormality in Treated Hypertensive Patients

Gaston K Kapuku, Michelle L Brown, Shin Suzuki and Steven Coughlin

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 20, 2022

Hypertension is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. However, the impact of stress on LV filling of treated hypertensive individuals is unclear. Fourteen hypertensive patients (mean age 55 years) and 14 age-sex matched normotensive controls underwent Doppler echocardiographic studies at rest and one minute following supine ergometer bicycle. The evaluations were done before and under treatment with diltiazem (180 mg/ day) during 24 weeks. Resting blood pressure cont...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710052

Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Assessment among South and South-East Asian Migrants Living in Greater Sydney, Australia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sachini Wijayakulathilake, Grish Paudel, Uday Narayan Yadav, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam4 and Lal Rawal

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 31, 2022

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes of death and disability in Australia. The number of migrants from South and South-East Asian countries to Australia is increasing rapidly and are at increased risk of developing CVDs. This study assessed the absolute CVD risk among South and South-East Asian migrants living in Greater Sydney, Australia....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710051

Right Ventricular Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients and its Impact on Mortality

Liaquat Ali, Mohammad Sharif, Mohammad Naeem, Mohammad Imran, Imran Janjua, Kazi Muntaha, Ameena Chalil, Mirza Baig, Hanna Ali, Hana Aweida, Ambreen Iqrar and Yasin Zada

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 22, 2022

Right ventricle (RV) size and function are important for the prognosis of patients with various forms of cardiovascular disease. The right heart differs from the left in terms of anatomy and physiology. COVID-19 may present with cardiac manifestations including myocardial injury, heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. In Chinese experience, patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have case fatality rate (CFR) is 10.5%....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710050

A Case Series: Long-Term Follow-Up of Four Patients with Kawasaki Disease who Developed Coronary Artery Disease

Zagarese G, Varriale A, Puntel G, Pesarini G, Cristofaletti A, Sandrini C, Ribichini FL and Prioli MA

Article Type: Case series | First Published: June 30, 2022

Kawasaki disease is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. It is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710038

Technical Feasibility Does Not Guarantee Clinical Improvement: A Word of Caution for Valve-in-Valve Procedures in Small Surgical Prosthesis

Marie-Elisabeth Stelzmueller, Bruno Mora, Guenther Laufer and Wilfried Wisser

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 13, 2021

The reoperation of old and frail patients with small tissue valves is a still challenging topic in cardiac surgery. An 85-years-old patient who underwent an aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a Mitroflow 21 mm and single coronary bypass operation 6 years ago, presented again dyspnea NYHA II-III. The echo showed a restenosis of the tissue valve and a mean gradient of 40 mmHg. Because of age, frailty and calculated perioperative risk, the patient was evaluated for a transcatheter valve-in-valve i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710049

Coronary Microvascular Injury in the COVID-19 Patient: The Need for Imaging Studies in Post-COVID-19 Cardiovascular Syndrome

Paula Marcela Cuéllar-Pinzón, MD, María Paula Montes-Lozano, MD, Marco Antonio Suárez- Fuentes, MD, Miller Jesús Melo-Mora, MD and Michael Gregorio Ortega-Sierra, MD

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: January 08, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated numerous questions about the pathophysiology of the acute phase of this disease, and as time goes by, also of the chronic phase, known as post-COVID-19 syndrome. Although the neurological phenotype (post-COVID 19 neurological syndrome) is the most debated, the evidence points to the fact that the main manifestations of post-COVID 19 patients, regardless of disease severity, are dyspnea, fatigue, tachycardia, and difficulties in performing activities of daily l...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710048

External Multicenter Validation of the Mehran Risk Score for Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury

Nashwa Abdulsalam

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 16, 2021

Contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a known complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Mehran Risk Score (MR score) has been previously shown to predict CIAKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and one-year mortality in patients undergoing PCI. The purpose of our study was to externally validate the MR score. To examine the utility of the MR score we reviewed records of 931 adult patients who underwent PCI in 2005 at 3 academic medical centers. Patients with acute myoca...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710047

Clinical Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Heart Failure Who Receive Public Assistance in Japan

Shingo Watanabe, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2021

The number of patients with heart failure (HF) is increasing, which is a socio-economic problem. Past overseas studies have reported that low-income patients with HF do not receive adequate treatment for financial reasons and have poor clinical outcomes. In Japan, medical expenses are free if they receive public assistance called Seikatsu hogo (PA), and there is no disadvantage to low-income patients regarding medical expenses. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteris...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710046

Cardiac Arrhythmia Associated with Remdesivir in COVID-19

Sristee Niraula, MD, Shital Oli, MD and Janette Lee, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 15, 2021

During the pandemic, Remdesivir was approved as a treatment for severe COVID-19. Little is known about its adverse side effects, as it had not been in clinical use prior to the pandemic, and we continue to learn more daily about its impact-both positive and negative-on our patients. In this case report, we present a patient who developed sinus bradycardia on the third day of Remdesivir administration, NSVT on the fifth day of Remdesivir, and whose arrhythmias resolved after cessation of Remdesiv...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710045

A Rare Association: Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Multiple Coronary Artery-Left Ventricular Fistulae

Isabel Monedero-Sánchez, MD, Pablo Robles-Velasco, MD, Amador Rubio-Caballero, MD, Yago González-Doforno, MD, Cecilia Marco-Quirós, MD, Victoria Espejo-Bares, MD, Verónica Artiaga-de-la-Barrera, MD and Carla Jiménez-Martínez, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 20, 2021

A 59-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of chest pain and she was diagnosed of acute coronary syndrome. Coronary arteriography showed a severe stenosis of left anterior descending artery but also the presence of multiple coronary artery-left ventricle micro-fistulae. Echocardiographic findings were consistent with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the fistulae were also patent by colour Doppler echocardiography. Little is known about clinical features of micro-fistulae arising from ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710044

Surviving the Death Roll; Unveiling the Undiagnosed: Case of Hispanic Man with Covid-19 Pneumonia

Michael Khorsandi, MD, Nirmala Manjappachar, MD, Elnaz Ebrahimihoor, MD and Nargiz Muganlinskaya, MD, MMS, FACP

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 15, 2021

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited electrophysiological abnormality which typically manifests in patients with diverse ethnicities as ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. The onset is frequently unmasked by various precipitating factors including but not limited to febrile diseases. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated COVID-19 illness continues to evolve. We are reporting a severe case of Covid-19 infection unveiling the un...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710043

Giant Obstructive Myxoma with Hemolytic Anemia and Multiple Nevi in a 10-Year-Old Girl

John Jairo Araujo, MBBS, MASt, MD, MSIAC, Edwin Antonio González, MD, Rafael José Meza, MD, Eliana María Arcila, MD and Veronica Herrera Roldan, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 23, 2021

Myxomas are low-prevalence heart tumors in the pediatric population. They are located in the left atrium in 75-86% of cases, and 30-50% are accompanied by general symptoms such as fever, weight loss, myalgias, arthralgias and elevated inflammatory markers caused by IL-6 release. They are rapidly growing heart tumors, and their most important complications are valvular and ventricular inflow tract obstruction, which may cause sudden death. Three to ten percent of cases are associated with Carney ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710042

A COVID-19 from Laboratory Suspicion to Confirmatory Tests: Controversial Debatable

Yasser Mohammed Hassanain Elsayed

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 31, 2021

A coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patient is currently balanced between laboratory suspicion and confirmatory tests. This is still controversial debatable. Sometimes, the cost and test availability push the physician towards this area. The disease severity, high infectivity, test sensitivity, and specificity are other playing factors. The strong willingness for mortality predictors is an essential tool for clinicians to rapidly triage the severe COVID-19 patients at admission into critical care depa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710041

Cardiovascular Urgencies and Emergencies in Pregnancy: A Case Based Review of Some Cardiovascular Diseases Affecting Pregnant Females

Timothy Paterick

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 31, 2021

This manuscript explores the clinical presentation and physical examination findings in pregnant patients with presumed heart disease. There is a review of the clinical presentation, physical examination, and multi-modality imaging that led to a diagnosis in pregnant patients with coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, and pulmonary hypertension. The cases are not exhaustive, but represent a subset of the large number of cardiovascular conditions affectin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710040

Impella Device is Superior to an Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock

Muhammad Zubair Khan, MD, Sona Franklin, MD and Richard Hyman, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2021

A Percutaneous assist device is commonly used in cardiogenic shock to improve hemodynamics. The Impella provided superior hemodynamic support in the ISARSHOCK study compared with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), with no change in clinical outcome. In this trial, the IABP was used in one group, and the Impella was placed in a comparator group. We present a case in which the hemodynamics of cardiogenic shock was assessed in the same patient after IABP and after Impella placement. In our case, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710039

Complete Heart Block in a Patient with COVID-19

Ricardo J Villasmil, MD, Christian J Lorenzo, MD, Qassem K Abdelal, MD, Jorge I Conte, MD, Natalia Lattanzio, MD, Wilhelmine Wiese-Rometsch, MD and Henry G Cheng, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2021

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been reported to cause cardiac complications including myocarditis, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and various tachyarrhythmias. We present a 63-year-old male who developed nonreversible symptomatic bradycardia due to advanced atrioventricular block (AV) requiring pacemaker placement in the setting of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus identified as the pathogen responsible for causing th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710037

Triple Therapy for Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Post Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Success Case for Cardiac Transplant

Muhammad O Zaman, MD, Luka Petrovic, MD, Scott Stewart, DNP and Bernard Kim, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 24, 2021

Patients with end stage heart failure often develop pulmonary hypertension which resolves after placement of left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Some patients develop persistent pulmonary hypertension despite LVAD implantation. This excludes them from being able to receive a heart transplant. High pulmonary vascular resistance is associated with poor prognosis in patients with LVAD. There are no treatment guidelines available for long term treatment of pulmonary hypertension in LVAD patients ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710036

Mitochondrial Dynamics and Cardiovascular Risk: An Insight at the Molecular Level

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás and Andres Llamas Nieves

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 06, 2021

Mitochondria are cellular organelles; whose function goes beyond generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP). They are part of the machinery involved in the production of substances related to iron, sulfur, and heme group, involved in lipid metabolism, calcium homeostasis, heat generation, cell signaling, stem cell pathway determination, and apoptotic processes. A vast variety of pathologies have been related to mitochondrial deficit, within these, cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710035

Homocysteine Levels and Cardiovascular Risk: Potential Predictor of Morbidity and Mortality

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás and Andres Llamas Nieves

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 06, 2021

Homocysteine is a sulfurated amino acid, deriving out of methionine from the metabolism of the methyl group. It is a non-protein substance that has been associated with the dynamics of endothelial function, platelet activation, and leukocyte interaction, with the capacity to intensify the inflammatory response in the cardiovascular system, it is therefore considered a potential cardiovascular risk marker. Some studies have evaluated homocysteine in risk groups, where it has been found that the e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710034

Unjustified Referral of Adult Patients with Hypertensive Crisis from a First Level of Care to the Emergency Department

Rodriguez-Zuñiga Jorge, Garcia-Hernandez Jorge Alfredo, Lopez-Vilchis Lizeth Liliana, Ruiz-Mondragon Alberto and Sanchez-Martinez Fatima Alondra

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 23, 2021

Hypertensive crisis is one of the main complications of systemic arterial hypertension, which is defined as severe elevation of blood pressure, with figures of more than 220/130 mmHg, these in turn are divided into urgency and emergency, which occurs when there is damage to a target organ. According to the literature, the majority of hypertensive crises that occur are of an urgency type, reported in up to 80% of cases, the latter do not require a rapid decrease in blood pressure, taking up to 72...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710033

The Influence of Iterative Reconstruction Technique on the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Calcification

Ahmed Khamis AlShamakhi, MSc, Rakesh Malhari Jamkhandikar, MD, Yahya Mohammed AlWahshi, MD and Sathiya Murthi Panchatcharam, MSc

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 23, 2021

This study was performed in a single center and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-one consecutive patients (26 men/5 women) underwent CT calcium score to rule out CAC. Image data were reconstructed with both; filtered back projection (FBP) and different levels of IR algorithms. Both the qualitative and quantitative image quality and subjective diagnostic performance were compared; Agatston scores and calcium density were measured for a total of 100 coronary arteries...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710032

Coronary Artery Disease Risk Assessment in Sedentary and Active Patients: Medical Risk, Behavioral Psychology, and the Standard of Care

Vinay Mehta, MD and Timothy E Paterick, MD, JD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 12, 2020

A practical approach to determining risk in sedentary and active patients for coronary artery disease. Identify how personal/family history, atherogenic risk factors, and coronary calcium are essential to determining and predicting risk potential. A comprehensive personal/family history, risk factor assessment and comprehensive physical examination are the foundation of risk assessment. Understanding the cognitive process of risk potential is critical to management strategies. Stress testing and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710031

The Usefulness of Long Inflation Balloon Angioplasty Using a Perfusion Balloon for Intracoronary Thrombus

Shingo Watanabe and Michio Usui

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 12, 2020

The beneficial effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been well established. PCI for ACS, especially for thrombotic lesions, is difficult to treat due to distal embolization or residual thrombus. We experienced a case in which long balloon inflation was effective in PCI for ACS due to thrombotic lesions. Here we introduce the case that long inflation balloon angioplasty using a perfusion balloon was useful in PCI for thrombus lesion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710030

Pacemaker Lead Associated Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Treated By Veno-Atrial Bypass

Thilina Gunawardena, MBBS, MD, MRCS, Balasubramanium Saseekaran, MBBS, MD, MRCS, Gayan Bandara, MBBS, MD, MRCS, Rezni Cassim, MBBS, MS and Mandika Wijeyaratne, MBBS, MS, PhD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 11, 2020

Pacemaker lead associated venous thrombosis is common. However, due to collateral venous drainage those who are affected rarely become symptomatic. Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms that occurs as a result of obstruction to flow in the superior vena cava. In this case report we present a patient who developed this complication following multiple transvenous pacemaker wires. After failed percutaneous venoplasty he was treated successfully with a right inte...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710029

Aortic Regurgitation Complicating Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

M EL Mourid, A Drighil, FZ Talhi, I Nouamou and K Bouayed

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2020

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), defined by the onset of arthritis evolving for more than 6 months, before the age of 16-years-old, with no evident etiology. It is the most common type of arthritis in children under the age of 16. The polyarticular form is characterized by more destructive joint and less systemic impairment. Cardiac involvement is not a usual presentation and varies from pericardial to myocardial involvement to heart failure. It is more seen in systemic form of AJI. Valvular...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710028

Two Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Assessment of Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients after Myocardial Infarction

Moustafa Kamal Eldin Ibrahim Khalil Saad, Khalid A El-khashab and Tamer M Ragab

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 11, 2020

Adverse left ventricular remodelling (LVR), defined as progressive ventricular dilatation, distortion of chamber shape, myocardial hypertrophy and deteriorating function, begins in some patients who suffered from acute myocardial infarction (AMI), sometimes even after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). If uninterrupted, it could lead to congestive heart failure (CHF) and a poor clinical outcome. This study aims at evaluating the value of speckle tracking echocardiography in pre...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710027

Thrombus in Transit in Right Atrium with Ecograph Pulmonary Infarction in Patient with Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism

Edroso Jarne Paloma Eugenia, Arche Banzo Maria Jose, Pascual Bielsa Ana and Obon Azuara Blanca

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 16, 2019

We describe the case of a 61-year-old female who was admitted to our tertiary centre with 15-day of dyspnea and whitish expectoration. The patient had a history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism a year ago, anticoagulated until a few months ago with acenocumarol. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism by CT-scan and deep vein thrombosis in the proximal segment of the left femoral vein....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710026

A Case of Acute Aortic Failure and Cerebral Infarcts due to Infective Endocarditis in a Patient Addict to Fentanyl and Alcohol-Management and Treatment

Mohammad Alsalaldeh and AVefa Ozcan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 18, 2019

Infective endocarditis (IE) is one of the cardiac inflammation diseases with high mortality and morbidity mainly affects the inner liner of the endocardium and the valves. The majority of the infective endocarditis is caused by infectious agents. Here in our case, we had a patient with IE associated with multiple cerebral hemorrhagic and infarct areas, brain abscess, pleural effusion, ARDS (Acute respiratory distress syndrome) and bicytopenia, with history of one attack pancreatitis and addictio...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710025

Coronary Artery Involvement Following Kawasaki Disease: A Case Report of a 5 Month Old African Infant

Tumwebaze Hilda, Ndagiire Emma, Namuyonga Judith, Twalib Aliku, Lwabi Peter and Lubega Sulaiman

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 07, 2019

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis which progresses to cause coronary artery abnormalities as a complication. Echocardiographic and cardiac angiographic data indicate that 20-40% of untreated KD patients develop coronary artery abnormalities. However, majority of the lesions regress over time. Timely treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and high dose of aspirin has been found reduce the incidence of developing coronary artery aneurysms to 2%-3%. Data on ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710024

Relationship Between Mean Platelet Volume-to-Platelet Count Ratio and the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Ectasia

Ramazan Asoglu and Emin Asoglu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2019

Atherosclerosis plays an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The mean platelet volume/platelet count (MPV/PLT) ratio is a new biomarker, and increased MPV/PLT ratio was a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with the acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to assess the association between the CAE and MPV/PLT ratio. The present study included 50 patients with CAE and 45 healthy subjects prospectively. The CAE was defined as dilation of the coronary art...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710023

Saphenous Vein Graft Aneurysm and Coronary Artery Disease: Case Report

Victor Rodrigues Ribeiro Ferreira, Maria Christiane Valeria Braga Braile-Sternieri, Eliana Migliorini Mustafa, Giovanni Braile Sternieri, Sofia Braile Sabino, Cibele Olegário Vianna Queiroz, Bethina Canaroli Sbardellini, Luiza Braile Verdi, Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho and Domingo Marcolino Braile

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 28, 2019

Despite a general reduction in the number of myocardial revascularization surgeries in recent decades, more than 150,000 are still performed annually in the United States. Early complications of venous graft use include an occlusion rate of up to 25% in the first year. The aneurysmal dilatation of the great saphenous vein, when used in aorto- coronary venous bridges, is rare and requires important care by the cardiology team. This study aimed to present a case report on saphenous vein aneurysm i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710022

Cardiac Interventions in Symptomatic Patients ≥ 90-Years-Old (Nonagenarians): A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Spectrum and Outcome

Philippe N Muller, Christine H Attenhofer Jost, MD, Osmund Bertel, MD, Barbara Naegeli, MD, Edwin Straumann, MD, Pierre Levis, MD, Burkhardt Seifert, Dominik Maurer, MD, Christoph Scharf, MD, Olaf Franzen, MD and Franz Wolfgang Amann, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 28, 2019

The database at our center from 2005-2014 was searched for all percutaneous cardiac procedures, including coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), percutaneous mitral valve repair by MitraClip (PMVR), balloon valvuloplasty of the aortic valve (ABVP) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Age at procedure, clinical data, type and findings at procedure, in-hospital outcome, survival and predictors for survival were an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710021

Case Report: A 13 Years Old Boy with Danon Disease, and Intellectual Disability

Alawni O, Almusaad A and Eyaid W

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2019

A 13-years-old boy. He was born at home at 30 weeks of gestation. He stayed in nursery for 3 months. He sat independently at the age of one year, walked at around 3 years and started to run around 4 years of age. Currently, he can walk, and run well. He wears his clothes, button, and unbutton his shirts. He copies letters, scripts and shapes however; he usually does not follow lines. He spoke at the age of 2 years it was single words like mama and dada....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710020

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in a Patient with AL Amyloidosis: A Rare Overlap of Two Cardiomyopathies

Brock M, Sanchorawala V, Berk JL, Cui H, Gopal DM, O'Hara C, Ruberg FL and Siddiqi OK

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 26, 2019

A 62-year-old woman with newly diagnosed systemic AL amyloidosis was evaluated for severely increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. Her echocardiographic, cardiac MRI, and genetic findings led to a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Five years after achieving relative a partial hematologic response with chemotherapy, the patient died after developing rapidly progressive heart failure and cardiogenic shock. A full autopsy diagnosed both cardiac amyloidosis and HCM. The overla...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-3966/1710018

Variable Left Ventricular Dyssynergy in Recurrent Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy

Timothy E Paterick MD, JD, MBA

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2019

Recurrent stress-induced cardiomyopathy with variable regional location of left ventricular dyssynergy is an unusual clinical presentation and may allow potential insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of the variable subtypes of stress induced cardiomyopathy. This case report reveals a patient with reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and apical Takotsubo cardiomyopathy within a three-week period. The discussion explores the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms re...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710017

Metastatic Cardiac Tumor from Precursor B Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma with a Mediastinal Mass: A Case Report of a 12-Years-Old African Girl

Dorah Nampijja, Aliku Twalib, Kumbakumba Elias and Sulaiman Lubega

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 15, 2019

Cardiac involvement in metastatic tumors is not widely investigated. Commonest site of cardiac involvement is the pericardium. However, diffuse metastasis to the myocardium and endocardium is uncommon. Striated cardiac muscle, fast blood flow within the heart and unique lymphatic drainage make malignant metastasis to the heart rare. Cardiac metastasis is a late manifestation of malignancy and most of the cases are diagnosed on Post-mortem. We describe a case of metastatic Pre B-Lymphoblastic Lym...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710016

Magnitude of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Adult Hypertensive Patients Attending in Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia, 2018

Degena Bahrey, Tekleweyni Mariye, Gebreamlak Gebremedh, Ayehu Kassa, Alem Girmay, Girmay Teklay, Hagos Tasew, Hagos Berihu and Yohannes Ashebir

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 10, 2019

A total of 578 hypertensive patients were taken from cardiac follow-up. Among the hypertensive patients the magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors was 212 (36.7%). The magnitude of each cardiovascular risk factor was high. Magnitude of overweight and obesity was 33.7%. Concurrently 30.4% had habit of taking high salt diet and 27.3% were patients with dyslipidaemia. Patients with less physically active were 89.1% and 23.5% were consuming alcohol regularly. Whereas 15.9% was smoker. This study a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IACVD-2017/1710015

An Unusual Thrombosis Mimicking Cor Triatriatum Dextra

Murat Surucu, MD, Hazım Alper Gursu and I Ilker Cetin

Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: February 25, 2019

Central venous catheters are commonly used in clinical practice. Right atrial thrombosis is a relatively common complication associated with indwelling catheter use. Thrombosis can be in different locations and forms within vascular and intracardiac structures. Echocardiographic images may mimic some anatomic and pathologic variants. We describe a case of a two-months-old girl with a thrombus which cor triatriatum dexter-like appearance in the right atrium due to the central venous catheter....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/IACVD-2017/1710014

Effects of Morning versus Evening Administration of Perindopril on the Circadian Control of Blood Pressure in Cameroonian Type 2 Diabetes Individuals: A Crossover Randomized Trial

Liliane Mfeukeu Kuate, Helene Ornella Bongha Ondoa, Jean-Claude Katte, Aurel Tiakouang Tankeu, Mireille Claudia Abeng Bokam, Andre Michel Bimbai, Ahmadou Musa Jingi, Chris Nadege Nganou-Gnindjio, Mesmin Yefou Dehayem, Francois Folefack Kaze, Jean Claude Mbanya, Andre Pascal Kengne and Eugene Sobngwi

Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 25, 2019

Renin-angiotensin system antagonists are the mainstays of blood pressure (BP) lowering strategies in people with diabetes. Perindopril a long half-life Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor offers the advantage of a single daily dose, usually empirically taken in the morning. We therefore aimed to assess the influence of time of administration on the effect of Perindopril on circadian BP in type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals with previously untreated stage 1 hypertension. Twenty T2D patie...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710013

Clinical Significance and Applications of D-Ribose in Cardiovascular Disease

Melike Bayram, David Perkowski, JA St Cyr and William T Abraham

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 15, 2018

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide. Myocardial ischemia, a common etiological factor in cardiovascular disease, lowers cellular high-energy phosphate levels, i.e. adenosine triphosphate (ATP), with an accompanying impairment in myocardial function. Furthermore, scientists have argued for the importance of ATP levels in supporting both systolic and diastolic function in heart failure. The magnitude of ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure is generally we...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710012

Why Atherothrombosis is in Principle a Hematologic Disease: The Effect of Disorders and Drugs which Affect Thrombosis on the Development of Atherosclerotic Plaques

Gregory D Sloop, Gheorghe Pop, Joseph J Weidman and John A St Cyr

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 01, 2018

The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic plaques develop from the organization of mural thrombi. In this process, circulating progenitor cells trapped within the thrombus differentiate into myofibroblasts which synthesize collagen, and endothelial cells which form granulation tissue. Eventually, all or most of the thrombus is replaced by collagen. Thus, conditions and dru...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710011

Sex-Related Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Insights from Path Analysis

Mohammad Reza Dayer, Vahideh-Sadat Nazemi, Mohammad Saaid Dayer and Sayed Mohammad Reza Alavi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 19, 2018

Cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction comprise the leading causes of more than half of the total death often among elderly people. Psychological stresses, imbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, tobacco, alcohol, and metabolic diseases such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus are the main risk factors for the disease. In order to better understand the underlying risk factor for the disease we performed complete analyses of biochemical factors in sera of obese, non-diabetic ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710010

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Pathophysiology May Also Affect the Gut

Paolo Angelini

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018

In this report, we describe a patient who presented with transient acute abdomen before the onset of an acute myocardial ischemic event. Chest pain, dyspnea, and hypotension requiring vasopressors developed 2 days after the patient presented with paralytic ileus. Transient left-bundle-branch block and mildly elevated troponin and brain-natriuretic peptide levels occurred. Echocardiography and left ventricular angiography revealed extensive periapical akinesia and a left ventricular ejection frac...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710009

Implantation of Pacemaker in a Patient with Dextrocardia, Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava, TGA and Heart Block


Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: August 29, 2018

Congenital anomalies of the heart may generate difficulties for cardiac invasive procedures. Dextrocardia is a rare congenital heart disease in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of the chest. Patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA) abnormalities are at risk for complete cardiac block and usually require a permanent cardiac pacemaker in long-term follow-up. The persistent left superior vena cava (PLSCV) is a rare venous anomaly, often associated with abnormaliti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710008

Hyperhomocysteinemia: How Does it Affect the Development of Cardiovascular Disease?

Lopes Cardoso I

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 27, 2018

Homocysteine is an amino acid with an SH group, metabolised by the remethylation and transsulfuration pathways. Several genetic and environmental factors (like deficient nutrition status, systemic disease or consumption of certain drugs), can lead to changes in the levels of plasma homocysteine. Nowadays, hyperhomocysteinemia is considered an important and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710007

Coronary Artery Ectasia: An Interventional Cardiologist's Dilemma

Matthew Schmidt and Timothy E Paterick

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 28, 2018

Coronary artery ectasia is defined as a localized, or diffuse dilation of a coronary artery lumen. Coronary artery ectasia is well recognized, but a rare finding encountered during diagnostic coronary angiography. Coronary artery ectasia represents a form of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, seen in 1.4-4.9% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. It may be an isolated finding, or in combination with stenotic lesions. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710006

Lipoprotein(a) and Atherosclerosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Marc Lubitz and Vaskar Mukerji

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 25, 2018

A 61-year-old man presented with central chest and vague left shoulder pain precipitated by a brisk walk up a steep hill. His pain resolved with rest. He has never had this pain before and had no associated symptoms. He has no other medical problems. He is known to have three vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) based on two previous cardiac catheterizations. His initial catheterization was conducted to evaluate the cause reversibility on an exercise stress test using radioisotope technetium 99M...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710005

Clinical Features and Management of Patients with an Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

Carolina Espejo-Paeres, Carmen Olmos, Pedro Martinez-Losas, Fabian Islas, Javier Higueras-Nafria, David Vivas and Isidre Vilacosta

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 30, 2018

An anomalous origin of a coronary artery is a rare congenital condition in which a coronary artery arises from the opposite coronary sinus. Most coronary artery anomalies are an incidental finding without clinical significance, although some cases may be potentially life threatening, depending on the origin, course and termination of the anomalous vessel. Anatomical features of risk are an aortic intramural course or inter-arterial course....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710004

Ventricular Electrical Standstill in a Patient with Left Ventricular Assist Device

Chee Kiang Teoh, Kah Leng Ho, Louis Teo, David Sim, Ka Lee Kerk, Jia Lin Soon, Teing Ee Tan, Sivathasan Cumaraswamy and Choon Pin Lim

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 02, 2018

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is designed primarily for circulatory support in left ventricular failure and its function relies heavily on intrinsic right ventricular function. We report, to our knowledge, the longest reported case of ventricular electrical standstill from progressive cardiomyopathy who was successfully managed on LVAD. A 51-year-old man, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who had been on HeartMate II LVAD support for three years, presented with frequent intermittent low pump ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710003

C Reactive Protein and Cardiovascular Disease

Ines Lopes Cardoso and Ana Teresa Paulos

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 11, 2017

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the first cause of death in developed countries, therefore it is of interest to reduce this public health problem. The development of atherosclerosis is the main cause of CVD. This pathology results from the accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall, that leads to a complex inflammatory process....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710002

Hyper-Homocysteinemia and other Inherited Thrombophilic Factors Inducing Retinal Vein Occlusion. The Employment of Novel Orals Anti-Coagulants is Possible?

Federico Cacciapuoti

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 18, 2017

Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO) is the second cause of unilateral visual loss, and can have ischemic or non-ischemic aetiology. The causes inducing RVO may be due to thrombophilia induced by acquired or inherited risk factors....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/iacvd-2017/1710001

Kounis Syndrome: A Form of Acute Coronary Syndrome of Unusual Aetiology

Fulvio Cacciapuoti, Valerio Langella, Paolo Tirelli MD and Federico Cacciapuoti

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 25, 2017

Anaphylactic reaction rarely manifests such as acute coronary syndrome induced by coronary vasospasm or atheromatous plaque rupture due to some chemical mediators, such as histamine, platelet activating factors, cytokines and others, derived from mast cells degranulation....


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021