The development of HIV vaccine including DNA, subunit, vector recombinant and various combinations offers the best hope for the future control of the HIV pandemic. HIV vaccine development discusses the formidable scientific challenges and better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of the disease.
Marc P Girard received his doctorate in veterinary medicine at Paris University in 1960, and his doctorate in Science in 1967, also in Paris. He trained for three years in the molecular biology of poliovirus as a Post-doctoral Fellow in the USA with Pr James Darnell, Renato Dulbecco and David Baltimore. He went on studying the molecular biology and genetics of poliovirus, then SV40 and adenovirus, before moving to HIV. He was a visiting professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Pr Hurwitz), the NIH (Dr Anthony Fauci), the Salk Institute in La Jolla (Pr David Baltimore) and Duke University (Pr Bolognesi). He worked for the last 20 years of his career on the development of an HIV vaccine.
Marc P Girard was the Chairman of the Concerted Action "Vaccines" at the French National AIDS Research Agency (ANRS) from 1988 to 1998. He then chaired the E.U. HIV Vaccine Initiative "EuroVac", an international AIDS vaccine Research Consortium which grouped together 21 European laboratories participating in comparative Phase I clinical trials of candidate HIV vaccines in human volunteers. Marc Girard went on official retirement in 2004 but has remained active. He still teaches, gives talks and writes review papers on vaccines as an Honorary Professor at University Denis Diderot (Paris 7). He also is a member of the French National Academy of Medicine and of the French Veterinary Academy. He has been the organizer of the "Cent Gardes Conference" on HIV Vaccines since 1986.
miR-181a regulates CD4 T cell aging via DUSP6 and SIRT1 pathways during HIV infection. T cell responses play a crucial role for viral clearance or persistence; however, the precise mechanisms that control their onset and termination during viral infection remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miR) have been implicated as key regulators controlling diverse biological processes through posttranscriptional repression. Here, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-mediated regulation of ?Np63 and miR-181a expression impairs CD4+ T cell responses to facilitate viral persistent infection via the dual specific phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) and SIRT1 signaling pathways. The findings provide novel mechanistic insights into that HIV-mediated premature T cell aging facilitates viral persistence and reveal new targets for therapeutic rejuvenation of impaired T cell responses.
Guangyu Li, MD, PhD is Assistant Professor at East Tennessee State University's Quillen College of Medicine in Johnson City. He completed postdoctoral fellowships in both pathology and infectious diseases at the University of Texas. Prior to joining the faculty in the Department of Internal Medicine's Division of Infectious Diseases, Dr. Li was an instructor at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. Dr. Li moved to the U.S. from his native China after earning his M.D. in 1997 and his Ph.D. in Infectious Diseases in 2005. Since then he has mentored two medicine fellows, one Ph.D. candidate, and three medical school students. He is a member of the Scientific Society of Sigma Xi, the American Society for Virology, and the American Society of Microbiology. Dr. Lis research interests include the pathogenesis of viruses-particularly the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and those that cause hepatitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fevers. A seasoned researcher, Dr. Li's current projects are designed to assess the role of an identified gene, CD63, to HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages, and generating and identifying nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate thioaptamers against hepatitis C infection. Along with his colleague, Monique Ferguson, Dr. Li was awarded a non-provisional patent in 2010 for detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. Author of more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles, Dr. Li sits on the editorial board of the publication, Journal of Bioterrorism and Biodefense, and he has served as a reviewer for several additional publications, including the Journal of Applied Microbiology and Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research.