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Original Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 1

Decreased Hippocampal Volume is Related to White Matter Abnormalities in Treatment-Resistant Depression

Christina B Young, Philip van Eijndhoven, Robin Nusslock, Guillen Fernandez, Aart Schene, Christian F Beckmann and Indira Tendolkar
Abstract

Despite considerable research on the pathophysiology of unipolar depression, relationships between gray and white matter brain changes associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have been sparsely investigated. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics to examine differences in fronto-limbic gray matter volume and their connecting white matter tracts, respectively.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-5866/1510012

Empirical Research  |   Volume 2, Issue 1

Executive Dysfunction and Processing Speed Predict Nonverbal Problem Solving Deficits in a Substance Use Disorder Population

Gerald T Voelbel, Zijin Wu, Cristina Tortarolo and Marsha E Bates
Abstract

Individuals with chronic substance use disorders have demonstrated various types of executive dysfunction, including nonverbal planning and problem solving. Prior studies that have examined the cognitive abilities that support performance of the Tower of Hanoi, a measure of nonverbal planning and problem solving task, have predominately been investigated in healthy adult populations. The present study examined how executive functions such as concept formation and cognitive flexibility, as well as information processing speed, and memory contribute to the performance of the Tower of Hanoi within a sample of 191 individuals with a substance use disorder.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-5866/1510011

Case Report  |   Volume 2, Issue 1

Congenital Marin-Amat Syndrome and Asymmetric Crying Face: A Case Report

Arzu Ekici, Kursat Bora Carman, Ozlem Ozdemir, Aynur Kucukcongar and Mehmet Ali Ekici
Abstract

Marin-Amat syndrome is a rare facial synkinesis and is characterized by the eyelid drooping on jaw opening. It is mostly an acquired phenomenon occurring after peripheral facial paralysis and very rarely congenital. Asymmetrical crying face is a rare minor congenital anomaly, that is the result of unilateral agenesis or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle. Our case is the second one in which the onset of Marin-Amat Syndrome is congenital and the first case with asymmetric crying face.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-5866/1510010

Case Report  |   Volume 2, Issue 1

Diagnostic Challenge of Ovarian Teratoma Related Anti N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in a Patient with Giant Arachnoid Cyst

Kilinc O, Gulatar B, Gonul O, Yildizhan B and Midi I
Abstract

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis is well-characterized and treatable subtype of inflammatory encephalitis. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women and characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion and psychological disturbances. In this report, we presented a case of anti-NMDAr encephalitis in a woman with a previously asymptomatic, giant posterior fossa arachnoid cyst (AC). With our report, we present our clinical approach anti-NMDAr encephalitis with challenging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of giant AC.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-5866/1510009

Review Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 1

Pathological Changes of Astrocytes under Seizure

Shanshan Lu, Fushun Wang and Jason H. Huang
Abstract

Multiple lines of studies support the view that defective functions of astrocytes contribute to neuronal hyper-excitability in the epileptic brain. Autopsy and surgical resection specimens find that post-traumatic seizures and chronic temporal lobe epilepsy may originate from glial scars. Astrogliosis, a component of glial scar, which involves structural and metabolic changes in astrocytes, is often a prominent feature of temporal epilepsy and most animal models of recurrent seizures. Although glial scar formation has been recognized for over 120 years, fundamental aspects of the cellular mechanisms are poorly understood.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2469-5866/1510008