Review Article Open Access

Energy Drink Ingredients and their Effect on Endothelial Function: A Review

John P. Higgins and Brandon L. Ortiz
Int J Clin Cardiol Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: It is an age-old idea to try to boost one's performance in order to achieve an elusive goal or conquer an obstacle. Many energy products, especially energy drinks (ED) are now marketed to this need, and examples include Red Bulls' 'Gives You Wings', as well as Monster Energy's 'Unleash the Beast' advertising campaigns. In the light of ED consumption recently being associated with high risk behaviors, unhealthy habits, and some deaths in adolescents and young adults, especially when consumed while exercising, the Food and Drug Agency and the scientific community is now asking for more evidence as to whether these EDs work, what is in them, who should use them, and what if any is a safe dose.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-2951/1410006

Case Report Open Access

A Rare Manifestation of Organophosphorus Poisoning: Hypothermia with Cardiotoxicity

Valliappan Muthu, Sahajal Dhooria and Inderpaul Singh Sehgal
Int J Clin Cardiol Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Organophosphorus pesticides related self-harm is afairly common clinical entity responsible for over two thirds of pesticide related deaths in the rural areas of developing countries. Organophosphates by their action at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors can have a myriad of presenting symptoms. Here we describe a fatal case of phorate (organophosphorus) toxicity manifesting with hypothermia and cardiotoxicity.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-2951/1410005

Research Article Open Access

Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 Induction during Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: A Rat Model of LAD Occlusion

D. Olga McDaniel, Lance Majors, Taolin Fang, Feng Zhang and Larry S. McDaniel
Int J Clin Cardiol Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: The emerging role of the innate immune response in organ transplantation heightens the significance of molecular markers released from the donor organ due to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) during organ procurement. These molecules are prime activators of innate immunity. Allograft inflmmatory factor-1 (AIF- 1) has been implicated in the regulation of inflmmation and organ rejection. To verify expression level of AIF-1 in cardiac tissues, we developed a rat model of IRI, in which the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded to generate ischemia in the left ventricle (LV) of the heart. Blood and cardiac tissues were tested for the presence of AIF-1 at different time intervals. AIF-1 expression was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner after IRI. AIF- 1 was up regulated as early as 10 minutes after reperfusion, and further it was increased several-fold after 60 minutes of reperfusion in PBMCs and PMNCs as compared to the control group. Expression levels of AIF-1 in LV tissues were significantly increased after 60 minutes of ischemia or 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. In addition the level of AIF-1 was 2-fold greater in LV tissues after 60 minutes of reperfusion compared to LV after 30 or 60 minutes of ischemia, Thus, myocardial IRI activates AIF-1 up-regulation, which may result in allograft dysfunction in transplantation settings.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-2951/1410004

Research Article Open Access

Prevalence of Hypertension and its Relationship with Adiposity among Rural Elderly Population in India

Nimmathota Arlappa, Avula Laxmmaiah, Nagalla Balakrishna, Rachakula Harikumar, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao and GNV Brahmam
Int J Clin Cardiol Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Background: The world has witnessed the demographic transition in which there is increased proportion of elderly (≥ 60 years) population. This increased longevity is associated with the burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Objective: To assess the prevalence of hypertension and its relationship with adiposity among the elderly in rural India. Subjects and methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out among 3133 elderly (Men: 1677; Women: 1456). Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were recorded on selected subjects. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 50% among rural elderly and significantly (p<0.001) a higher proportion of women (53.3%) had hypertension compared to men (47.3%). Prevalence of hypertension was significantly (p<0.001) higher among overweight / obese elderly and it increased significantly (p<0.001) with increasing body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and age. According to un-adjusted odds ratio (OR), higher BMI had twice the risk of having hypertension among both elderly men (OR=1.9; CI: 1.4-2.5) and women (OR=2.2; CI: 1.7-2.8). However, abdominal obesity, in terms of WC had higher risk (OR=2.6; CI: 2.0-3.3) of having hypertension compared to high BMI among elderly women. Similarly, other covariates such as older age, sedentary physical activity, wealth index in both genders and high consumption of sugar and salt in case of elderly women were significantly (p<0.05 to 0.01) associated with hypertension.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-2951/1410003

Editorial Open Access

Cardiology and the New Decade

Amy Hase
Int J Clin Cardiol Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Greetings to all readers as we move in to the era of science and technology. Let us hope to witness several exciting developments in the field of cardiology that would pave way to the cure of many cardiological disorders in this new era. This year the International Journal of Clinical Cardiology is debuting in field of open access. We hope to bring to you some of scientific excitements. There had been much progress in the field of Heart Transplantation Surgery. Doctors and Researcher from all across the world has summarized these developments and has challenged us to meet the future scenario, particularly in the realm of treatment and prevention. There is much research going on to improve the techniques of cardiogenic shock prediction and stimulation techniques to abort shock. Some of these methodologies are very promising and are undergoing various stages of clinical trials.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-2951/1410002

Editorial Open Access

Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Diabetics

Wilbert S. Aronow
Int J Clin Cardiol Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Dyslipidemia in diabetics should be treated with lifestyle measures. Statins are the only lipid-lowering drugs that have been demonstrated to lower the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review article will discuss the treatment of dyslipidemia in diabetics and the current guidelines supporting the use of statins in the treatment of diabetics.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-2951/1410001

Volume 1
Issue 1