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Research Article  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

HER2 Positive Gastric And Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma; An Irish Tertiary Center Experience

Yasir Y Elamin, Shereen Rafee, Mutaz M Nur, Nemer Osman, John V Reynolds, Cian Muldoon and Kenneth J O'Byrne

Background: Trastuzumab has been approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over expression and gene amplifiation metastatic gastric cancer. Here we present the prevalence of HER2 positive gastric cancer in an Irish population, the use of Trastuzumab in fist line and beyond progression. Methods: The study was conducted in St James’s Hospital, Dublin. A retrospective analysis of the date of patients with HER2 positive gastric cancer over a period of 3 years was carried out. Her2 positive was defied as immunohistochemistry (IHC) score of +3, of IHC score of +2 and increased gene copy number by florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Overall survival was calculated from the day of initiation of treatment with Trastuzumab until death. Results: During the study period 140 patients with gastric and gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma were treated. Out of those, 30 (21.4%) had HER2 positive disease. Among HER2 positive disease patients 18 (12.8%) were treated with fist line Trastuzumab containing regimen with a median overall survival of 13 months. Nine (50%) developed progressive disease while on Trastuzumab and of those, 4 (22.2%) patients continued on Trastuzumab beyond progression, two (11.1%) of whom achieved stable disease and a prolonged survival. Conclusion: HER2 positivity rate in an Irish population with advanced gastric and gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma is 21.4%. Treatment with Trastuzumab in the fist line in combination with chemotherapy is a reasonable approach. Continuation of Trastuzumab beyond progression is a feasible strategy that requires further exploration.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1008

Short Communication  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

Epidemiology and Radiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Rex Cheung

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer secondary to chronic liver conditions such as hepatitis Bvirus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections, obesity and alcoholism. HCC is the sixth most common solid tumor, and third most lethal cancer globally. Thre may be a gender diffrence in the development and outcome of chronic liver diseases. In U.S., the incidence of HBV infection has declined since the introduction of HBV vaccination in 1981. But approximately 350 million of global population has chronic HBV infection. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is another major source of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. About 3 % of world population are infected with HCV.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1007

Research Article  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

Knowledge, Attitude and Screening Behaviour of Benue State University Male Students towards Prostate Cancer Awareness

Joyce M.Terwase, Chioma C. Asuzu and James A. Mtsor

The study investigated the influence of knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour of Benue State University Male Students towards prostate cancer awareness. Five research questions and research hypotheses guided the study. The study was a cross-sectional design utilizing a pretested 34-item Prostate Cancer Questionnaire (PCQ) (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.62) to collect information about knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour regarding prostate cancer among Benue State University Male students Makurdi, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty-fie participants were sampled for the study by systematic random selection of male students in Benue state university. Data analysis was done using mean and standard deviations while multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 and 0.01 levels of signifiance respectively using SPSS 16.0 software. Result showed that the interaction of knowledge, attitude and screening behaviour signifiantly inflenced prostate cancer awareness, knowledge (β=0.76; P<0.01), screening behaviour (β=0.108; P<0.05) and attitude (β=-0.018; P>0.05). Though attitude was not signifiant, their joint interaction signifiantly inflenced awareness of prostate cancer. Demographic variables were not found tosignifiantly inflence prostate cancer awareness. The study provides conclusion for male students to be encouraged to follow health seeking behaviours and recommend that the government should design an intervention program through innovative health education strategies and include cancer education in school curriculum.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1006

Research Article  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Differentiation Histologic Variant of Urothelialcarcinoma of Urinary Bladder: Oncological Outcome Following Definitive Surgical Treatment

Mohamed Wishahi, Hossam Elganzoury and Mohamed Badawy

Objectives: To investigate the impact of variant histologic patterns of urothelialcarcinoma of the bladder on oncological outcomes of patients treated with Radical Cystectomy (RC). Three histologic patterns were evaluated: Urothelial Carcinoma (UC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), and urothelial carcinoma with Squamous Differentiation (SqD). Materials and methods: Retrospective archival study included 258 patients treated with RCfor muscle-invasive carcinoma. Data were reviewed in demographic and clinicopathological parameters that included histopathological variant, tumor stage, and nodal status. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were evaluated. Histologic patterns of these 258 patients were: 90 patients with UC, 112 patients with SCC, and 56 patients with UC with SqD. Archival data were retrieved from 1995 to 2012. Results: Median followup was 44 months. There were statistically significant differences between survivals in the three groups. Overall survival decreased in UC with SqD. Patients with SCC had a higher risk of local recurrence, while patients with pure UC had a higher risk of metastases.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1005

Editorial  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

Is Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Still an Option for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in the Era of BTK Inhibition?

Josh D. Simmons and Jeremy Pantin

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains the most common adult leukemia in Western countries. Over the last several decades, there has been an evolution in therapeutic options from single-agent alkylating agents to purine analog-containing regimens, as well as chemo-immunotherapy combinations. Despite the high initial response rates reported with conventional chemo-immunotherapy, patients invariably relapse and may subsequently develop resistance to further conventional therapy.Unfortunately, there is no evidence to date that conventional therapy is curative.Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been evaluatedas a treatment option to improve prognosis,specifically in patients with poor-risk features or in those with refractory disease.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1003

Editorial  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

Isnt it the Timing for Physics Guidelines on High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer?

Yongbok Kim

Prostate cancer has been known as the most frequently occurring (233,000 estimated new cases in 2014) and the secondly death-causing (29,480 estimated deaths in 2014) for men in the United States of America. Based on the extension of tumor, prostate cancer is staged in the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) scoring system. Depending upon clinical TNM staging, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (ng/mL) and pathologic biopsy denoted as Gleason sum score (GSS), localized prostate cancer patients are categorized into three risk groups according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1002

Editorial  |   Volume 1, Issue 1

International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research- Commited to Ensure Quality Publication in Cancer Research

Sulma I. Mohammed

With great pleasure we welcome you to the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research. We envision this journal to provide a platform for all cancer researchers around the world to publish their high quality findings in cancer and clinical research as well as a venue to nurture researchers and young investigators in developing countries. The journal aims to accelerate the pace of research, discovery and innovation in clinical research around the globe.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/1/1/1001