Original Article Open Access

Gene-Specific Promoter Methylation Status in Hormone-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Associates with Postmenopausal Body Size and Recreational Physical Activity

Lauren E. McCullough, Jia Chen, Alexandra J. White, Xinran Xu, Yoon Hee Cho, Patrick T. Bradshaw, Sybil M. Eng, Susan L. Teitelbaum, Mary Beth Terry, Gail Garbowski, Alfred I. Neugut, Hanina Hibshoosh, Regina M. Santella, Marilie D. Gammon
Int J Cancer Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Introduction: Breast cancer, the leading cancer diagnosis among American women, is positively associated with postmenopausal obesity and little or no recreational physical activity (RPA). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain unresolved. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation may represent an early event in carcinogenesis, but few studies have investigated associations between obesity/RPA and gene methylation, particularly in postmenopausal breast tumors where these lifestyle factors are most relevant. Methods: We used case-case unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the associations between body mass index.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1013

Original Article Open Access

Phase I Clinical Study of Survivin-Derived Peptide Vaccine for Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancers

Fukino Satomi, Hiroaki Shima, Toru Mizuguchi, Toshihiko Torigoe, Goro Kutomi, Yasutoshi Kimura, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Yasuaki Tamura, Tomohide Tsukahara, Takayuki Kanaseki, Akari Takahashi, Hiroko Asanuma, Yoichi M. Ito, Hiroshi Hayashi, Osamu Sugita, Noriyuki Sato and Koichi Hirata
Int J Cancer Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Survivin is a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. It is expressed in fetal tissues but not in normal adult tissues. Since Survivin is over expressed in various types of tumor tissues as well as tumor cell lines, it is considered to be suitable as a target antigen for cancer vaccine therapy. We identified an HLA-A24-restricted antigenic peptide, SVN-2B (AYACNTSTL), derived from a splicing variant of Survivin-2B. In the present study, we carried out a phase I clinical study assessing the safety and efficacy of vaccination with the peptide in patients having advanced gastrointestinal cancer.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1012

Case Report Open Access

Primitive Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma: Three Cases with Immunohistochemical Profiling

Mira Akiki, Fereshteh Farkhondeh, Virginie Fourchotte and Xavier Sastre-Garau
Int J Cancer Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Most carcinosarcoma, formerly designed as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumors are found in the uterus or the ovary, but rarely in the fallopian tube. The histogenesis of this type of tumor and its place regarding serous or poorly differentiated carcinoma are discussed. We document here three typical cases primarily developed in the fallopian tube. The patients were 69, 70 and 82 years old. They all presented with abdominal pain and large unilateral adnexal mass apparently confined to the ovary. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in all cases. Macroscopically, the tumors were located on the fimbriae in two cases and on the fallopian tube in one. They presented cystic and solid components. In addition, in one case, vegetations were present on the serosal surface of the homolateral ovary whereas both ovaries were normal in the two other cases. Microscopically, tumors were classified as carcinocarcoma with heterologous component in two cases and as homologous carcinosarcoma in one.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1011

Original Article Open Access

Smac13-Tat Fusion Peptide Induces Cell Death and Sensitizes HeLa Cells to Chemotherapeutic Drugs

Yoshinori Mano, Toshihiko Torigoe, Hiroko Asanuma, Yoshihiko Hirohashi and Noriyuki Sato
Int J Cancer Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Background: The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells and play an important role in the inhibition of caspases, thereby suppressing programed cell death and leading to chemoresistance of cancer cells. However, the anti-apoptotic function of IAPs could be suppressed by Smac, the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase through its direct interaction with IAPs. Smac can interact with IAPs through the N-terminal Ala-Val-Pro-Ile tetrapeptide domain. Methods: In the present study, the first 7 amino acid sequence (residues 54-60), Smac7,and the fist 13 amino acid sequence (residues 54-66), Smac13, which are conserved among mammalian homologues were transduced into cells by bonding to the HIV-1 Tat-derived cell-penetrating peptide. Results: The Smac-Tat peptides induced cell death and increased the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in HeLa cells, whereas they did not affect cell survival in normal lymphocytes. The Smac7- Tat peptide could bind to Livin but not Survivin.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1010

Opinion Open Access

A Cross-Disciplinary Look at Shoulder Pain and Dysfunction after Treatment for Breast Cancer

Delva Shamley
Int J Cancer Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Shoulder morbidity is a well-documented consequence of treatment for breast cancer. Despite less invasive surgery, a subset of breast cancer survivors present with decreased shoulder complex mobility, tightness, oedema, weakness, pain and numbness after treatment. Additional considerations are connective tissue changes such as scarring and Axillary Web Syndrome (cording), which are known contributory factors to arm dysfunction and pain after treatment. Patients experiencing shoulder and arm problems have significantly reduced functional use of their upper limb, which limits their quality of life and their ability to return to work.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/1/1009

Volume 2
Issue 1