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Case Report  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

Vaginal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) with Unusual Liposarcomatous Differentiation - A Case Report

F Gougeon, J. Doyon, P. Sauthier and K. Rahimi

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare sarcomas usually arising in peripheral nerve bundles or from pre-existing neurofibromas. They have frequent divergent differentiation. Here we present a case of MPNST arising in the vagina of a 70 y.o women. Beside the unusual location, this tumor presented liposarcomatous differentiation, a finding which has only been reported three times in the past and never in a MPNST of the female genital tract.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1030

Review Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Hormone-Receptor Positive Advanced Breast Cancer-The Emerging Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors

Ciara C O'Sullivan

Dysregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may inhibit senescence and promote cellular proliferation. By using various different mechanisms, malignant cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity. The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls the cell cycle restriction point, and is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer; making it a rational target for anticancer therapy.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1029

Review Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

Targeting of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Using Anti-inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Agents

Parvin Forghani and Edmund K Waller

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been considered to be key mediators of immuno-suppression in cancer. The numbers of MDSCs increased in the blood and in the tumor microenvironment during inflammation. Due to the strong correlation between inflammation and cancer that results in tumor progression through MDSCs-associated immune-suppression, it is posited that modulating MDSCs using anti-inflammatory drugs will enhance the activity of immunotherapy and antitumor immunity.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1028

Original Research Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Neck from Unknown Primary Sites: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre (ORCC) Experience

Osama Marglani, Ameen Zaid Alherabi, Ali Safar, Suliman Alghamdi, Libni Eapen, Helen Caetano and Martin Corsten

Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to the neck from an unknown primary site presents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic disease entity, despite a thorough diagnostic workup. The optimal management of patients who have this syndrome is still unclear and controversial. We present our experience in management of patients with unknown primary.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1027

Original Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Determine the Optimum Staging modality for Primary Breast Cancer

Berney M, Manning A, Carter M, Sacchini V, Kell M R. Barry M

Staging of primary breast cancer can radically alter the management if stage IV disease is accurately detected. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether conventional CT TAP or PET-CT provides the optimum staging modality. A meta-analysis involving 158 patients with primary breast cancer showed that PET-CT was more sensitive than CT-TAP for detection of metastatic disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.37 - 4.53, p < 0.0001). A systematic review of 1780 patients undergoing PET-CT was compared with 709 patients having a CT TAP for staging.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1026

Original Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

Common Polymorphisms in the USF1 Gene and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

Meng Zhang, Jian Bai1, Junjie Huang, Yukun Ge, Hu Xiong, Wei Lu, Jizhou Shi, Lu Fang, Song Wu and Zhiming Cai

Upstream transcription factor 1(USF1) has been identified to be implicated in the development of many cancer categories. In view of recent studies, several polymorphisms in USF1 gene appeared to exert diverse influence on cancer susceptibility. However, the association between USF1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility remains inconclusive due to the finite relevant published discoveries. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by pooling all available published data on the susceptibility of USF1 (rs2516838, rs2516839, rs2774276 and rs3737787) polymorphisms to cancer.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1025

Review Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

The Influence of Melatonin on Immune System and Cancer

Anna Gry Vinther and Mogens H. Claesson

Melatonin has been shown to play a fundamental part in neuro immune modulation. Besides regulating the circadian rhythm it works as a natural antioxidant with immune stimulatory and anti-cancer properties. Melatonin is a regulator of hemopoiesis and modifies various cells and cytokines of the immune system. Melatonin elicits oncostatic properties in a variety of different tumor cells.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1024

Original Article  |   Volume 2, Issue 4

A Derivative of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-3 Inhibits PAK1 Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

Peter Oladimeji, Yuzuru Kubohara, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Yoshiteru Oshima, Courtney Rusch, Rebekah Skerl, Maria Diakonova

Differentiation-inducing factors 1-3 (DIFs 1-3), chlorinated alkylphenones identified in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, are considered anti-tumor agents because they inhibit proliferation of a variety of mammalian tumor cells in vitro. Although the anti-proliferative effects of DIF-1 and DIF-3 are well-documented, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of DIFs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of DIFs and their derivatives on PAK1, a key serine-threonine kinase, which is activated by multiple ligands and regulates cell proliferation.

  PDF   |    Full Text | DOI: 10.23937/2378-3419/2/4/1023