Durable and Effectiveness of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer
Carlos Gil Moreira Ferreira, MBBS, Gustavo Bittencourt Camilo, Eleusa Nogueira Dias, Bianca Lopes de Oliveira, Carlos Murilo Schanuel, Juliana Abreu de Vasconcellos and Emílio Campos Augusto Pereira de Assis
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 09, 2020
Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (AJEG) is a neoplasm that is globally prevalent with generally bad clinical outcome. It is estimated that there is an annual incidence of new tumors in the order of 572,034 in the US with about 28,000 new cases and 10,960 deaths attributable to the disease. In Brazil, an estimated 11390 new cases, corresponding to 8690 in men and 2077 in women for the year 2020. About half of the people with cancer of the esophagus or the gastroesophageal junction have me...
COVID-19: A Cure and Preventive Options
Dr. Roli Jain and Dr. Archana Panday
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 29, 2020
The world encounters the episode of coronavirus infection that undetermined worldwide pandemic in 2002-2003 by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and in 2011 by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 indicate similar, but distinct genome composition of SARSCoV and MERS-CoV. The World Health Organization (WHO) also declared a global emergency on January 31st due to increasing concerns over its fast spread, and on March 11th the disease was recognized as ...
A Systemic Review: Structural Mechanism of SARS-CoV-2A Promising Preventive Cure by Phytochemicals
Dr. Roli Jain, Dr. Sandeep Shukla, Dr. Neeti Nema and Dr. Archna Panday
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 24, 2020
Phytochemicals are a powerful group of compounds, belonging to secondary metabolites of plants and including a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organ Sulphur compounds, and vitamins. The potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. The ideal technology would be vaccine that gives lifelong immunity with a single dose. When whole world community of scienti...
Role of IL-17 and IL-23 in the Pathogenesis of Neutrophilic Asthma
Nightingale Syabbalo, MB, ChB, PhD, FCCP, FRS
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 21, 2020
Asthma is a complex chronic airway disease with several distinct phenotypes characterized by different immunopathological pathways, clinical presentation, physiology, comorbidities, biomarker of allergic inflammation, and response to treatment. Approximately 10% of patients with asthma have severe refractory disease, which is difficult to control on high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and other modifiers. About 50% of these individuals suffer from neutrophilic asthma. Neutrophilic asthma is a ...
Corona Virus: An Immunological Perspective Review
Nimesh Singh, Bharat Suthar, Abhay Mehta, Neeti Nema and Archna Pandey
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020
As the world is seeing the plague of COVID-19, an illness brought about by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, developing hereditary qualities and clinical confirmations recommend a comparative way to those of SARS and MERS. A course of viral particles enters the body through the nose, eyes or mouth. Breathing conveys a portion of these particles to the lower respiratory tract where the spike proteins of the coronavirus, acting like a key, lock into epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract ...
An Immunological Algorithm to Defeat Covid-19
Ajay Gupta and Ayush Gupta
Article Type: Commentaries | First Published: April 27, 2020
Countries like Italy, Spain or Germany etc. with very low prevalence of tuberculosis and discontinued BCG immunization since decades, are witnessing the worst form of this global pandemic of Corona virus. It has also been seen that Covid-19 affected more of those countries who have robust and free influenza vaccination programme. High mortality of Covid-19 patients is probably result of the reduced Th1 immunity due to lack of past exposures to various infections and poor or absent local innate i...
Blood Plasma from Survivors of COVID-19: A Novel and Next Frontier Approach to Fight against Pandemic Coronavirus
Nimesh Singh and Archana Pandey
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 26, 2020
Blood from people who have recovered can be a rich source of antibodies, proteins made by the immune system to attack the virus. The part of the blood that contains antibodies, so-called convalescent plasma, has been used for decades to treat infectious diseases, including Ebola and influenza. In the absence of a cure or vaccine for the coronavirus, a group of scientists is searching for a fast solution in an unconventional place: The veins of people who have recovered. Starting in New York City...
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Inhibitors as Novel Immuno- Oncology Agent and Vaccine Adjuvant
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 06, 2020
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans causes lymphopenia and this provided the rationale for developing PNP inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. However, careful re-evaluation of clinical history of PNP deficient patients and clinical experience with PNP inhibitors together with new experimental data suggest inhibition of PNP may have immune activating effects through elevation of guanosine and activation of various tolllike receptors (TLRs). This paper proposes a mechani...
Is There A Vaccine for Covid-19 and Are We Unaware of It?
Kazhal Mobaraki and Jamal Ahmadzadeh
Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 20, 2020
Vaccine production and immunization of the susceptible population against novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is the most important public health strategy in controlling and preventing the spread of disease. Considering the absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, physicians have to treat symptomatically using potential antiviral drugs (e.g. Tadalafil, Atorvastatin, Telmisartan, Ribavirin, Dipyridamole, Chloroquine phosphate and so forth). In such circumstances, the main question may arise on how we can chan...
Effect of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG on the Number and Differentiation of T Lymphocytes in the Intestine of Early Weaned Piglets
Seria Masole Shonyela, Bo Fong, Wentao Yang, Guilian Yang and Chunfeng Wang
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 20, 2020
In recent years, with the rapid development of Chinas breeding industry, the weaning age of piglets is also in advance. The weaning time of piglets determines the number of piglets per year and the reproduction rate of sows. At the same time, the earlier weaning the piglets, the lower the production cost. However, early weaning of piglets will have a series of adverse effects on piglets. First of all, piglets will suffer from malnutrition due to early weaning, and their growth and development wi...
Simplified Neutrophil Isolation Protocol
Antonio Muniz-Buenrostro, Alma Y Arce-Mendoza, Edgar I Montes-Zapata, Rubi C Calderon- Melendez and Maricruz J Montelongo-Rodriguez
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 13, 2020
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in humans and among the first cells to arrive on the site of inflammatory immune response. Due to their key role in inflammation, neutrophil functions such as locomotion, cytokine production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and release of extracellular traps are extensively studied. In the presentstudy, we present a simplified neutrophil isolation protocol which has excellent reproducibility and low cost. Taken together, our findings point to the fact...