Short Commentary Open Access

Radiological Pathology

Shoichi D. Takekawa
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Pathology and radiology have become pivotal in the clinical practice of daily medicine. Diagnostic radiology and pathology are indeed indispensable wheels of medical practice. Clinicians achieve tentative diagnoses based on laboratory data and medical images in addition to their physical findings and patient medical history. Based on all available findings and on patient characteristics, clinicians finally decide on further therapeutic management strategies, including medical and surgical therapies. Medical images are interpreted and reported by radiologists, yet with current hospital-wide image distribution and viewing systems (PACS) images are immediately and largely available for second reading and interpretation by clinicians.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510017

Case Report Open Access

Orbital Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma: A Case Report

Hind M. Alkatan and Abdul Elah A. Al-Abdullah
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Xanthogranulomatous ocular and periocular lesions in adults have been reported in 3 main forms: adult-onset xanthogranuloma (AXG), necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), and Erdheim-Chester disease. The three forms differ in regards to laterality, systemic associations, and prognosis. NXG is a rare chronic progressive disease considered to be systemic with mostly asymptomatic internal organ involvement. Ophthalmic manifestations include conjunctival, corneal and scleral involvement. We are presenting a case of NXG with initial presentation as bilateral scleritis and eventual posterior eye and orbital involvement resulting in loss of vision and exenteration. The diagnosis of NXG was not made until 28 years following her initial presentation.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510016

Review Article Open Access

Squamous Morules (Microcarcinoids) in Gastroesophageal Polyps; a Mimicker of Invasive Carcinoma

Safia N Salaria and Elizabeth Montgomery
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Colorectal lesions termed squamous morules or microcarcinoids display predominantly squamous and variable endocrine differentiation and are often found in colorectal adenomas with high grade dysplasia thus mimicking invasion. Herein, we describe histopathologic, immunohistochemical classification and clinical correlation of analogous lesions in the esophagus and stomach. We identified five cases (3 men, 2 women) from November 2004-March 2013 of gastric and gastroesophageal polyps with squamous morules. Four of the patients were white. The median age was 70 years (range 59-85 years). Two patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, one was undergoing routine screening, and two were followed up for Barrett esophagus (BE) and a history of gastric polyps respectively. Three lesions were gastric, one gastroesophageal (GE), and one patient had both GE and proximal gastric lesions.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510015

Review Article Open Access

Cancer Stem Cell Microenvironment in Canine Glioblastoma Development: Animal Model for Human Disease

George Stoica
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Understanding the cancer stem cells (CSCs) role in malignancy is based on a comprehensive understanding of normal stem cells role and plasticity in maintaining the normal homeostasis or regeneration in various organ tissues. The niche microenvironment that sustains and regulates stem cells is tightly regulated by physical factors and hormonal signals. In the central nervous system (CNS) malignancy the CSCs niche is deregulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which disrupt the homeostatic balance from quiescence state to proliferation and differentiation that characterized glioblastoma development.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510014

Research Article Open Access

Liquid Biopsy: A Future Tool for Post Treatment Surveillance in Head and Neck Cancer?

Joost H Van Ginkel, Manon MH Huibers, Rob Noorlag, Remco de Bree, Robert JJ van Es and Stefan M Willems
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely based on disease stage. Despite improvements in treatment, recurrence rates are still considered high. Currently, disease progression or regression after curative treatment is monitored by clinical evaluation combined with flexible endoscopy and/or imaging.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510013

Commentary Open Access

Balancing the Harm and Benefit of Disclosure: A Laboratory Physician's Perspective

Chantale Pambrun
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: The four principles of medical ethics that so often appear in the literature encourage physicians to uphold them whenever possible. We are to respect the autonomy of our patients, try to bring them clinical benefit, refrain from harming them, and to be just and fair.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510012

Case report Open Access

An Uncommon Cause of Skin Discoloration: Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva

Charles Joseph Haddad, Judella Haddad Lacle and Charles Michael Haddad
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Purpura Pigmentosa Progressiva is also known as Progressive Pigmentary Dermatitis or Schamberg's Disease. It is a disorder causing skin discoloration on the trunk and extremities, and is a lymphocytic capillaritis of unknown etiology. The disease can occur at any age. It is important to be aware of this disorder since it can mimic other diseases and problems including child and elder abuse, thrombocytopenia purpura.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510011

Review Article Open Access

Overview of Coroner's Adult Autopsies in England

Husayn Al Mahdy
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: This article provides an overview of coroner's autopsies in England with the aim of improving the service and hence provide accurate death certification as well as a learning experience for clinicians caring for patients. The system that has evolved has neither improved the service nor has it led to a learning experience for the clinicians. Compatibility of clinical features ante-mortem combined with post-mortem findings are lacking and involvement of the clinicians is almost non-existent. The coroner's pathologists invariably works in isolation and the clinicians do not get any opportunity to discuss some of the difficult issues faced during the clinical presentation of patients.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510010

Review Article Open Access

Factors Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy of Hepatic Metastasis from Colorectal Carcinoma

D. Cortes Guira,, MJ Fernandez-Acenero, Damian Garcia-Olmo and C. Pastor Idoate
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a widely used therapeutic option for patients with resectable hepatic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. In this setting, the intent of NAC is to reduce metastatic size and make surgery easier and/or less extensive, mostly in patients that are amenable to surgery. Several studies confirm that response to neoadjuvant therapy is indicative of a better prognosis for such patients and several methods have been proposed and validated to measure both radiological and histopathological response. However, surgery remains the only curative option for these patients and patients should be operated on after chemotherapy regardless of response.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510009

Case Report Open Access

Ovarian Neoplasm in a Patient with Prior Breast Carcinoma - Challenges and Pitfalls in Diagnostic Process

Elena Arabadzhieva, Sasho Bonev, Lyubomira Dimitrova, Atanas Yonkov, Dimitar Bulanov, Vesela Ivanova and Violeta Dimitrova
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: We present a case of 58-year-old woman who underwent bilateral adnexectomy with small bowel resection during urgent operation for an incarcerated umbilical hernia. There was a slight enlargement in both ovaries and presence of cystic formation with some papillary structures in the right one. Histologically, bilateral infiltration of tumor cells with moderate cytological and nuclear atypia and tubular, nested and cystic growth pattern was observed. The patient had a long list of co-morbidities: liver cirrhosis, ascites, isolated cytology with presence of tumor cells, elevated level of CA-125 and quadrantectomy of the right breast, performed 15 years ago.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510008

Research Article Open Access

The Optimization of Igm In-House ELISA for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Melioidosis in Malaysia

Azura Mohd Noor, Norazah Ahmad and Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Melioidosis is a life-threatening infectious disease which can lead to high mortality and death within 48 hours if treatment is delayed. Detection of antibodies against Burkholderia pseudomallei may help in early diagnosis of melioidosis. This study was carried out to optimize an in-house ELISA for the detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) against B. pseudomallei in suspected acute melioidosis patients in Malaysia. Three different concentrations of crude B. pseudomallei cells antigen (0.200 mg/ml, 0.100 mg/ml and 0.05 mg/ml) and 2 different dilutions of conjugate (1:2000 and 1:4000) were used. The ELISA worked well with 0.05 mg/ml antigen when conjugated with 1:4000 peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-human-IgM.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510007

Commentary Open Access

On Emerging Clinical Dental Specialties and Recognition

Ronald S Brown
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Dentistry is mainly a surgical clinical profession and dental clinicians are primarily involved in the surgical management of oral diseases and conditions. There are a few American Dental Association (ADA)-recognized non-surgical dental specialties such as Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, and Public Health Dentistry. These non-surgical dental specialties are mainly supportive to the surgical dental specialties and general dentists. For instance, Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology and Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology support providing diagnostic information to assist surgical procedures, and Dental Public Health evaluates global oral disease data in order to advance mostly surgical clinical dentistry.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510006

Research Article Open Access

Flow Cytometric Analysis of Cell Size in B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Reliability and Potential Diagnostic Significance

Aaron Cotrell, Farzaneh Sayedian, Michelle Huang, Xia Chen, Ming Xie, Marc Smith and James Huang
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Evaluation of lymphoma cell size is a key step in the sub classification of B-cell lymphomas. Lymphoma cells can be classified as large, small or (less commonly) medium; but recognition of large B-cells is of particular importance because of their diagnostic and prognostic significance. Lymphomas with increased large cells are often associated with more aggressive clinical course. For instance, neoplastic B-cells of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are predominately large cells.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510005

Research Article Open Access

Proficiency Assessment Mechanism for Line-Probe Assay Testing for Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India

Raizada N, Sachdeva KS, Malhotra B, Thakur R, Kishore Reddy VC, Chauhan DS, Dave P, Mohammed F, Ram Das, Sharma P, Sharma SK, Wares F, Sahu S, O'Brien R, Mundade Y, Dewan PK and Paramasivan CN
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: GenoType MTBDRplus assay (LPA) has been endorsed by the World Health Organization for rapid screening of patients at risk of MDR-TB for an early diagnosis. A key constraint in the uptake of this technology in 2009 was the lack of LPA proficiency assessment system. To enable LPA scale-up, proficiency testing procedures were developed and implemented in India. Methods: After initial LPA training, each project site collected remnant sputum specimens from 50 smear-positive patients for anonymous LPA testing. Results were assessed for negative control validity, successful amplification and internal and external reproducibility.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510004

Research Article Open Access

Histological Findings in the Kernicterus-Associated Vulnerable Brain Regions are Linked to Neurodegeneration, Alterations in Astrocyte and Pericyte Distribution, and Vascular Modifications

Ines Palmela, Pedro Pereira, Masaharu Hayashi, Dora Brites and Maria A. Brito
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Kernicterus is a severe manifestation of neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. We investigated the neuro-glia-vascular alterations in autopsy material from three infants with kernicterus. Histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed in the cerebellum, hippocampus and basal ganglia, the most vulnerable brain regions to bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. The data obtained were compared with the relatively spared temporal cortex, as well as with three aged-matched controls with no hyperbilirubinaemia.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510003

Review Article Open Access

Clinical Applications of Leukocyte Morphological Parameters

Dongsheng Xu
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: Leukocyte morphological parameters, also known as cell population data (CPD), are measured by Coulter automated hematology analyzers with VCS technology. In recent years, clinical applications of CPD have been extensively investigated. The studies have demonstrated that diagnostic utility of neutrophil CPD in acute bacterial infection, particularly their roles in differentiating post-surgical bacterial infection versus systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510002

Editorial Open Access

Why the Hypocholesteremia must not be Neglected?

Elisabetta Albi
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 1, Issue 1

Abstract: During the last ten years studies on the role of cholesterol in the development and progression of cancer process and observations of severe hypocholesterolemia in patients with solid tumours and hematologic malignancies have been extended. Th cancer cell incorporates cholesterol with avidity and reduces its serum level. In normal cells, cholesterol binds sphingomyelin with very long-chained saturated fatty acids to form membrane lipid raft that acts as platform for proteins and receptors.

PDF   | Full Text   DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510001

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