International Journal of

Pathology and Clinical ResearchISSN: 2469-5807

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Mini Review Open Access

Reduced and Thinned Elastic Fibers in Skin Tag

Ahmed Abdullah Alhumidi
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: This is a retrospective study in which thirty histopathological specimens of fibroepithelial polyp (skin tag) were examined. Their paraffin blocks were collected from the archives of the Pathology Department, king khalid University hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 2010 to 2012. Age of the patient, sex, and site, of the lesions as well as type of skin tag were recorded. Sections from each paraffin block were cut by a microtome at 5-micron thickness, stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic revision and with elastic-van Gieson stain for dermal elastic fiber evaluation.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510030

Mini Review Open Access

Micronutrients Deficiencies in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Graziela Biude Silva, Bruna Zavarize Reis and Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly involves synovial joints and affects up to 2% of adults worldwide. Poor nutrient status in RA patients has been reported and some drug therapies, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prescribed to alleviate RA symptoms, may increase the requirement for some nutrients and reduce their absorption. The importance of micronutrients in this disease is related to their cofactor role in immune system functions and in different metabolic processes in articular tissues.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510029

Mini Review Open Access

Research Progress of STK33 in Cancer Biology

Chen Chen and Jianfeng Li
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: In recent years, serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) has attracted considerable attention in tumor biology. STK33 displays a heterogenous expression pattern, and in most tissues, expression level is low. It belongs to the CAMK family, and differentiates itself from other members of the CAMK family due to its expression pattern. STK33 is likely to participate in the dynamic changes of intermediate filament cytoskeleton depolymerization by phosphorylating vimentin, and thereby influencing the cell structure and a series of important functions.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510028

Mini Review Open Access

JAK2V617F Mutation Affects Downstream LIN28A and HMGA2 Methylation in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Chih-Cheng Chen, Chia-Chen Hsu, Kuan-Der Lee, Chia-Chen Chiu, Hong-Chi Chen, Tim H.-M. Huang, Yu-Wei Leu and Shu-Huei Hsiao
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: The lineage/clonal selection theory for cellular transformation may help identify the effector genes whose functions are crucial for MPN tumorigenesis. MPNs originate from hematopoietic stem cells carrying compartmental mutations such as JAK2V617F. JAK2 signaling regulates target gene expression by altering the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STATs. To provide selectable gene expression that promotes transformation of certain cellular lineages, specific signals relayed to the cell nucleus could be memorized as heritable codes such as epigenetic modifications.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510027

Mini Review Open Access

The Cardiovascular Risk Prognostication in Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Myeloid-related Protein Complex Calprotectin

Alexander E. Berezin
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: The low-intense inflammation is discussed as a one of the clue of various faces of pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) including insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipotoxity, oxidation injury that contributed in cardiovascular (CV) disease and clinical outcomes. However, there are a lot of candidates for on early biological marker that could stratify DM patients at CV risk. The myeloid-related protein 8/14 known as calprotectin is a heterodimeric complex of calcium-binding proteins, which is predominantly expressed in activated human neutrophils, monocytes, adipocytes, and innate immunity cells including macrophages, but not in normal tissue macrophages.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510026

Commentary Open Access

Integration to Advance Translation

Estela S. Estape
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: The science of translation has been taken over very fast by health stakeholders such as: investors, shareholders, sponsors, practitioners or any interested party in healthcare. The main reason is the demand to transfer discoveries faster to the ones who are in most need: the participants or patients. Translation can be seen as the art of transferring scientific knowledge into evidenced based everyday practice; paving the way to increased effectiveness and efficiency in health care. The concept of translation is not new. We can find many definitions, descriptions such as bench to bedside, classifications such as the T's, designations like Implementation Science or other characterizations; all according to the framework of the ones who are trying to explain and apply the concept.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510025

Perspective Open Access

Transforming the 24/7 Clinical Laboratories - Design Considerations, Workflow and Relocation to New Diagnostics Building

Ng Wai Yoong and Yeo Chin Pin
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Laboratory services in Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a national referral centre, acute tertiary and teaching hospital has changed through the years with its beginning since 1821 and as a modern hospital in 1926. An opportunity to design new facilities to transform the delivery of clinical tests and embrace future challenges came up with the confirmation of a new purpose-built Pathology building in 2009.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510024

Review Article Open Access

Glutamate Concentrations in Plasma and CSF in Patients with Glioma and Meningioma

George Dimogerontas, Alexia Polissidis, Petros Karkalousos, Epameinondas Konstantinidis, Zeta Papadopoulou-Daifoti and Charis Liapi
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Glioma, a malignant intra-axial brain tumor, can release glutamate that facilitates tumor expansion, stimulates tumor-cell proliferation and motility and promotes epileptic activity. Glutamate acid is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian Central Nervous System. We explore correlations of glutamate concentrations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with glioma in comparison to patients with meningioma which is the most common benign cerebral tumor.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510023

Review Article Open Access

Potential Clinical Applications of Next Generation Fluorescence Immunohistochemistry for Multiplexed and Quantitative Determination of Biomarker in Breast Cancer

Hiroshi Tada, Kohsuke Gonda, Minoru Miyashita and Noriaki Ohuchi
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Assessing breast cancer tissues for expression of multiple biomarkers, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67, provides critical information for patient management. However, the predictive power of these biomarkers for the selection of personalized therapeutic approaches is still limited. Application of fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) has offered some promising breakthroughs in the multiplexed imaging and quantification of biomarker expression and may improve the sensitivity and reliability of clinical diagnostics.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510022

Review Article Open Access

Intracellular Effectors of Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's and other Neurodegenerative Diseases

Zen Kouchi
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Synaptic morphogenesis and plasticity are regulated by neuronal activity to form efficient neuronal networks based on somatosensory inputs or behavioral experiences. Enhanced neuronal activity triggers reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in presynaptic compartments and induces coordinated changes in apposed postsynaptic density with actin dynamics. Numerous cell-adhesion molecules are involved in these processes, and classical cadherins are most characterized and important for synaptic formation or dendritic arborization.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510021

Case Report Open Access

A De Novo Malignant Mixed Tumor (Carcinosarcoma) of the Parotid Gland: Case Report

Hussam F Tallab, David E Ricklan and Peter J Catalano
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary gland origin are exceedingly rare and demonstrate malignant epithelial and stromal components. The subject of this case study is a 61 year-old male who presented with mild left facial swelling with minimal discomfort and without a mass of the parotid gland. He underwent CT imaging which demonstrated a cystic lesion of the parapharyngeal space. CT guided fine needle aspiration of the lesion failed to demonstrate malignancy. The patient ultimately underwent two surgical procedures to fully excise the cancer. Histological and immunological evaluation revealed a carcinosarcoma. Carcinosarcoma (true malignant mixed tumor) of the parotid gland is an extremely uncommon tumor composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements coexisting together.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510020

Case Report and Review of Literature Open Access

Anemia Investigation Reveals a Primary Sea-Blue Histiocyte Syndrome

Antonio Proenca Caetano, Ines de Figueiredo, Francisco Tortosa, Anabela Ferrao and Cristina Ferreira
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Sea-blue Histiocyte Syndrome (SBHS) is a rare and poorly understood systemic histiocytosis that is sometimes associated with haematological and lipid storage diseases as well as other miscellaneous conditions, but in most cases its cause is unknown. Patients often have very disparate clinical features but share the same histological findings of sea-blue histiocytosis in the bone marrow, i.e. characteristic lipid-laden macrophages with deep-blue or blue-green granules when stained with Romanovsky or May-Grunwald Giemsa stain. We describe a case of an 8 year-old girl admitted to the emergency department with a history of fever, adynamia, subicteric sclerotics, lymphadenopathies, anemia and leukopenia. During the investigation, histological examination of the bone marrow revealed a Sea blue histiocytosis. Patient workup revealed a spherocytosis, but it was inconclusive regarding major causes for these findings such as Niemann-Pick Disease, Gaucher Disease and other haematologic conditions, and was thus considered a Primary Sea-Blue Histiocyte Syndrome.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510019

Review Article Open Access

Pathologic Reporting of the Surgical Margin after Radical Prostatectomy: Considerations for Improving Oncologic Prognostication

Michael J. Whalen and Michael B. Rothberg
Int J Pathol Clin Res Volume 2, Issue 1

Abstract: Positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy have been identified as an adverse pathological feature predictive of higher rates of biochemical recurrence, distant metastasis, and cancer-specific mortality compared to negative margins. Such observations underlie the rationale for adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced disease or positive margins. Even without adjuvant radiotherapy, however, not all patients who have a positive margin will recur. While other adverse pathological features such as pathologic stage, pathologic Gleason score, and PSA likely play a role, there has been recent evidence demonstrating the importance of nuanced examination of the positive margin to enhance risk stratification and prognosis. Such features include extent involvement or multifocality, predominant Gleason grade at the PSM, and even close surgical margins.

PDF   | Full Text  DOI: 10.23937/2469-5807/1510018

Volume 2
Issue 1