Original Article | Volume 3, Issue 2
Histologic Evidence of the "Sick Lobe" Carcinogenesis Theory and the Frequency of Intraepithelial Lesions in the Mammary Glands of Female Canines with no Clinical Signs of Neoplasia
Jahnier Andres Caicedo Martinez and Carlos Arturo Iregui Castro
Intraepithelial Lesions (IELs) are focal outgrowths of the Mammary Gland (MG), some of which are considered early precursors of tumors. The early detection of IELs has improved the survival rate in women. IELs in female canines have been proposed as a comparative model of IELs in humans.
short commentary | Volume 3, Issue 2
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos
Nail involvement by pemphigus vulgaris is uncommon and has been associated with the severity of disease. Paronychia, onychomadesis, Beau's lines, nail hemorrhages, cross riding, discoloration, hyperkeratosis, pitting, pterygium, onychodystrophy, onycholysis, onychorrhexis, onychoschizia and trachyonychia have been reported. These nail disorders may appear before, concomitantly or after the typical manifestations of pemphigus flare ups.
COMMENTARY | Volume 3, Issue 2
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos and Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a severe malignant condition with a median survival lower than one year, and a five-year survival rate of about 30%, including tumors resected at early stage. Recurrences within two years occur in up to 80% of the resected tumors. More than two thirds of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomas have single site of metastases, mainly affecting the liver, lungs, bones and brain, by decreasing order of frequency.
Case Report | Volume 3, Issue 2
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos, Rafaela Pinheiro Weiber, Rosana Aparecida Rodrigues Cardoso, Mariely Fernanda da Silva Helbingen and Bruno César Rodrigues do Amaral
Cerebral venous thrombosis is not a frequent condition and may follow unsuspected, with unspecific manifestations. Neuroimaging studies are mandatory in differential diagnosis, which includes arterial strokes and other benign and malignant causes of intracranial hypertension, headaches, seizures, and hemiparesis.
Research Article | Volume 3, Issue 2
Decrease of Nitrergic Innervation in the Esophagus of Patients with Chagas Disease: Correlation with Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal
Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Jacqueline Garcia Duarte and Débora d'Ávila Reis
The pathogenesis of megaesophagus in chronic Chagas disease, which is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is compelling. Individuals with megaesophagus often present achalasia and disturbances of peristalsis and neuronal loss.
Case Report | Volume 3, Issue 2
Malignant Melanoma Arising in Association with Sinonasal Melanosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Eric Ewing, Jeffrey B Jorgensen, Benjamin F Erhardt and Lester J Layfield
Malignant melanomas of the nasal mucosa represent approximately 1% of all melanomas and reported examples often arise in areas of pigmentation of the nasal mucosa. Melanin pigmentation has been reported to occur in the nasal glands and dendritic cells but melanomas arising from areas of pigmented (melanocyte containing) nasal glands have not been reported to our knowledge.