International Journal of

Stem Cell Research & TherapyISSN: 2469-570X


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410035

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Modulation of TH17 Cells

Justin D Glenn and Katharine A Whartenby

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: June 26, 2016

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-faceted cells capable of tissue regeneration, wound healing, and immunosuppression. Their immunosuppressive actions extend to most innate and adaptive immune cells, including TH17 cells, which have recently been discovered to be important pathogenic cells in a variety of disease settings, including many autoimmune diseases. As various long-standing treatments and therapies in autoimmune disease may face limitations and result in dangerous side effects, the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410034

Bone Marrow Cells Repair and Regenerate Acute and Chronic Injured Liver without Primary Evidence of Neoplastic Changes

Prakash Baligar, Veena Kochat, Snehasish Mukherjee, Abinaya Sundari T, Vikash Kumar, Zaffar Equbal and Asok Mukhopadhyay

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 28, 2016

All major metabolic and synthesis functions of liver are significantly perturbed in case of critical injury. Though liver regenerates by itself following acute injury, this process is impaired in case of chronic injury. In both cases, unless liver is allowed to regenerate by proving appropriate support, either internally or externally, depending up on the extent of injury it ceases to function and transplantation remains the only available treatment option. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410033

Short-Course High-Dose Methylprednisolone Induces Differentiation and Apoptosis of Myeloid Leukemic Cells

Gonul Hicsonmez

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 28, 2016

Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid cells, which lose their ability to differentiate into normal mature cells. The initial observations of the possibility of treatment with agents which induce terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells were made by Leo Sachs and co-workers for more than 4 decades ago....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410032

Development of Better Treatments for Retinal Disease Using Stem Cell Therapies

Rachel Gater, Dan Nguyen, Alicia J El Haj and Ying Yang

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 28, 2016

The retina is a complex, light sensitive tissue layer on the inner surface of the eye, which functions to translate light stimuli into nerve impulses which travel to the brain via the optic nerve. Retinal diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa can lead to significant vision problems and even blindness. Although there are some existing treatments for retinal disease, current treatments are invasive, need to be regularly repeated and do not have the capability of ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410031

Epigenetic Loss of MLH1 Expression in Normal Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Clones is Defined by the Promoter CpG Methylation Pattern Observed by High-Throughput Methylation Specific Sequencing

Jonathan Kenyon, Gabrielle Nickel-Meester, Yulan Qing, Gabriela Santos-Guasch, Ellen Drake, PingfuFu, Shuying Sun, Xiaodong Bai, David Wald, Eric Arts and Stanton L. Gerson

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: May 24, 2016

Normal human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) lose expression of MLH1, an important mismatch repair (MMR) pathway gene, with age. Loss of MMR leads to replication dependent mutational events and microsatellite instability observed in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Epigenetic CpG methylation upstream of the MLH1 promoter is a contributing factor to acquired loss of MLH1 expression in tumors of the epithelia and proximal mucosa....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410030

The Role of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Carlos Rio, Andreas Jahn, Amanda Iglesias, Luis A Ortiz and Ernest Sala-Llinas

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are adult multipotent cells capable of differentiating into a number of different cell lineages, which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, amniotic membrane and other tissues, expanded in culture and, subsequently, administered by systemic or local routes into injured animals or ill patients. As a result of their proliferative potential, multipotency, immunomodulatory effects, migratory ability and immunoprivileged state (MSC express ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410029

Mesenchymal Stem Cell: Considerations for Manufacturing and Clinical Trials on Cell Therapy Product

Yen-Shun Chen, Yi-An Chen, Pei-Hsun Tsai, Chih-Ping Chen, Sheng-Wen Shaw and Yogi Hsuan

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell type, and they are the most widely used cell type in stem cell therapies. Designing a new MSC drug is an intricate process, considering the versatile nature of cells and the susceptibility to manufacturing processes. As the number of MSC-based clinical trials rapidly grows over the years, there is an urgent need to develop a more stringent method to characterize MSC for quality and to enhance scrutiny ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410028

Prospect of Cell Therapy for Treating Perianal Fistula, Including Crohn's Disease

Guadalajara H, Garcia-Arranz M, Georgiev-Hristov T, Cortes D and Garcia-Olmo D

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 31, 2016

Novel methods are needed for this condition, and cells appear to have potential to improve fistula healing. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in several clinical trials, including phase-III studies. After an analysis of the published papers we can conclude that MSCs have evident anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties, MSCs are safe for clinical practice and have decent results considering the challenging conditions surrounding the procedure and the safety profile of the...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410027

Epigenetics, Ethnicity, Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology Opening Frontiers in Cardiac Medicine

Janet L. Paluh

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: March 30, 2016

Stem cell based therapy directed towards improving the long-term therapeutic outcome of heart disease in many regards remains in its infancy. Although strategies with bone marrow derived stem cells have been prevalent in clinical trials, other stem cell resources are less explored. The ability to use reprogrammed somatic cells for patient-optimized therapies, either from direct reprogramming to cardiac lineage or reprogramming first to pluripotent stem cells, requires expanding our understanding...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410026

Circulating Progenitor Cells in Regenerative Technologies: A Realistic Strategy in Bone Regeneration?

Jessica B. Chang and Justine C. Lee

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 26, 2016

The regeneration of bone is a complex physiological process involved in fracture healing as well as defects created by trauma, infection, tumor resection, congenital abnormalities, and impaired or insufficient regeneration. Various bone regeneration and repair strategies exist to augment surgical reconstructive procedures, including use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, distraction osteogenesis, osteoconductive scaffolds, and bone morphogenetic proteins....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410025

CD271 Negative Human Dental Pulp Cells Yield Significantly More Adherent Colony Forming Cells than the Positive Phenotype

Matthew J Tomlinson, Elena A Jones, Peter V Giannoudis, Xuebin B Yang and Jennifer Kirkham

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 08, 2016

Cell surface markers for isolating proliferative human dental pulp stromal cells are currently lacking. Other tissues containing mesenchymal stromal cells have been studied in greater depth and candidate markers for cell isolation identified, one such marker being CD271. Previous reports suggest CD271 as a marker for isolating dental pulp stromal cells from rat incisors. We aimed to study the utility of CD271 as a marker for isolating human dental pulp stromal cells. CD271 positive cells from bo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410024

Function of Sirtuins in Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Dong and Hongjuan Cui

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 08, 2016

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewing cancer cells in tumors that are suggested to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression and relapse. The molecular mechanisms of CSCs biology could provide some novel managements for cancer treatment. Sirtuins, as a family of class III deacetylases, are recently found to play essential roles in the maintenance and differentiation of various cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSCs), colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs), breast cancer s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410023

Cell-based Therapy for Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Can the Agonists of Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone Make a Contribution?

Xianyang Zhang, Norman L. Block and Andrew V Schally

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2016

Beta cell replacement, to supply the body with cells producing insulin, is considered as one of the most important alternative approaches to the treatment of diabetes. Transplantation of human islets and the resulting progressive improvement of clinical results confirm the approach as a positive trend in this field. Recent progress in beta cell differentiation, deriving from many types of pluripotent stem cells, has potentially provided an unlimited source of β cells for research and clinic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410022

Stem Cell Approach to Generate Cancer Specific Immune Effectors Cells

Sylvie Shen, Ning Xu, Geoff Symonds and Alla Dolnikov

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2016

The ability to target cancer cells using genetically enhanced immune effector cells armed with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) capable of recognising tumour associated antigen is a novel approach to the treatment of cancer. Remarkable success in early phase clinical trials has demonstrated a potent anti-cancer effect of T cells modified to express CAR (CART cells) targeting CD19+ B-cell malignancies....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410021

A Conceptual Integration of Extra-, Intra- and Gap Junctional- Intercellular Communication in the Evolution of Multi-cellularity and Stem Cells: How Disrupted Cell-Cell Communication during Development can Affect Diseases later in Life

James E Trosko

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 29, 2016

An attempt will be made to provide a short conceptual review to integrate, from an evolutionary perspective, how the emergence of gap junctional intercellular communication helped to bring about multi-cellularity and new adaptive phenotypes. This new fundamental biological function of the metazoans was needed to provide homeostatic control of new cellular functions of an interacting society of different cell types existing in a 3-dimensional unit. Changing paleo-physics- and -chemistry of the ea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410020

Hypophosphatasia and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Therapeutic Promise

Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare and Monica Mottes

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 29, 2016

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is due to mutations in ALPL gene which encodes the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase isozyme (TNSALP). Defective/inactive TNSALP causes an increased concentration of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in bone matrix that impairs bone mineralization. The accumulation of extracellular PPi observed in HPP causes impairment in bone mineralization process and leads to a disturbance of calcium and Pi homeostasis. The pathogenesis of bone hypomineralization in HPP is relatively...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410019

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cardiovascular Disease

May Al-Nbaheen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 13, 2016

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different adult tissues and can be differentiated along stromal lineages (i.e. osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). Recent data in the literature provided evidence that MSCs can also be differentiated in vitro into additional cell types, such as endothelial cells. In our studies we showed the endothelial differentiation and angiogenic potential of human neonatal foreskin derived stromal cells (hNSSCs) both in vitro and in vivo....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410018

Mammary Epithelial Cell Lineage Analysis via the Lyon's Hypothesis

Andrea L. George and Gilbert H. Smith

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2016

Implants of mammary glands from a single mammary fat pad in a H253 transgenic female mouse heterozygous for a lacZ-labeled X chromosome were analyzed at various time points following transplantation into the epithelium-cleared mammary fat pads of immune-compromised mice. The results show that the lacZ-marked X chromosome, demonstrated by nuclear-associated X-gal staining, was confined to a single epithelial clone that gave rise to the cap cells of all growing terminal end buds (TEB) in the expan...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-570X/1410017

Ex-Vivo Expansion of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy Products for Clinical Use: The Importance of Moving towards the Optimization of Process Development

Silvana Bardelli and Marco Moccetti

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: January 03, 2016

Preliminary studies based on stem cells were initially applied to the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the purpose of delivering a cardioprotective effect. The field has then rapidly expanded to embrace chronic heart failure as a cardiorestorative therapy. For the easiness of collection as hematologic tissue, Bone Marrow (BM)-derived stem cells were utilized as the primary source of these applied therapies. Specifically, unselected Bone-Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMNCs)...

Volume 3
Issue 1