Autophagy and Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 in Renal Tubular Epithelia Cells
Rui Hong Chen, Fen Song, Yu Gan, Ting Ting Li, Lin Ye, Wei Jing Liu and Hua-Feng Liu
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 29, 2019
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) is regarded as the important factor in many fibrotic kidney diseases. Autophagy is a vital mechanism which maintains intracellular homeostasis in eukaryotic cells and involves in various renal physiologic and pathological processes. Current studies indicate that autophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells serves as a renoprotective mechanism which modulates the course of diverse kidney disease....
Hyper-Acute Presentation of Access Based Cardiac Disease
Mohamed A Sheta, MD, Axita Patel, OMS and John R Ross, MD
Article Type: CASE REPORT | First Published: February 23, 2019
Fifty years after the creation of the first arteriovenous access, little is known about the deleterious cardiac effects of this pathological circuit. Understanding the pathophysiology of Access Based Cardiac Disease (ABCD) is critical, given the fact that cardiac abnormalities are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in end stage kidney disease patients on dialysis. However, this has been a challenge, as many of hemodialysis patients have preexisting cardiac disease, they invariably have...