Journal of

Infectious Diseases and EpidemiologyISSN: 2474-3658


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510184

A Human-Pathogen Model for COVID-19 Outbreak: Flattening Epidemic Curve in Kenya

Viona Ojiambo, Mark Kimathi, Samuel Mwalili, Duncan Kioi Gathungu and Rachel Mbogo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

This work introduces a deterministic model of COVID-19 spread aimed at analyzing non-pharmaceutical interventions in Kenya. The model accounts for symptomatic, asymptomatic and environmental transmission. Using the SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed- Infected-Recovered) compartmental model with additional component of the pathogen, the dynamics of COVID-19 outbreak is simulated while focussing on the impact of different control measures in the reduction of the basic reproduction number. The resulting sys...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510183

Battle against Two Pandemics New One (Covid-19) and Existing One (Tuberculosis)

Ch Pachouri, S Tripathi, S Shukla and A Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable disease, and its control is a highly cost-effective health intervention. However, diagnostic delay and inadequate treatment contribute to the severity and mortality of the disease as well as the risk of transmission and development of drug resistance. Despite the fact that TB disproportionately impacts low- and middle-income countries, it does not spare any country in the world including those in the European Union/European Economic Area where more ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510182

Proximity based Metrics Assessment of Disproportionate Exposure of Air Travelers to Spread of Covid-19 Pandemic

Nwokedi Theophilus Chinonyerem, Hussaini Yusuf Kodo, Obe Ejii Samuel and Ahunanya Valentine

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

Following the gradual easing of the inter-regional travel ban and restrictions on domestic air travels associated with the corona virus pandemic by Government due to economic reasons, confirmed cases of the covid-19 infection across states seems to have shown continual increase and the transmission curve show increasing trend particularly in Nigeria. Awareness of travelers’ level of exposure to the spread of the covid-19 disease relative to the travel distances is a sure prerequisite to limit ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510181

Personal Protection Equipment Utilization and Hand Hygiene Practice during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review

Azmeraw Bekele and Yimenu Yitayih

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 16, 2020

Personal protective equipment and instant hand hygiene found the most effective preventive measures during coronavirus disease-19 and their utilization should depend upon contact-droplet exposure. The aim of the review was to evaluate when, where, and how the personal protective equipment utilized and hand hygiene practiced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The following databases were searched using keywords and related browsing terms: PubMed Central, Ovid Medline via PubMed, Cochrane database, WHO ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510180

Hybrid Autopsy Virology Laboratory Experimental Platform

Izak B Dimenstein, MD, PhD, HT (ASCP)

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: December 11, 2020

The SARS-CoV-2 aerosols’ transmission route is not still settled. Along with epidemiology data, there is an urgent necessity for reliable reproducible experimental methods for virus aerosolization studies. The autopsy table can form part of a hybrid autopsy virology laboratory as an investigative platform equipped with the necessary instruments for SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization studies. Wide open mucosa surfaces COVID-19 deceased can be a field for studying under experimental manipulations of air ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510179

Small Viral Particle Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A and Measles: Dual Pandemics, Outbreaks and Public Health Protection with the Use of Face Shields and Face Coverings

Cameron Y S Lee, DMD, MD, PHD, MPH, MSEd

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2020

As the Covid-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread globally, the influenza virus circulates in communities capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality. Further, measles outbreaks are common events as well and may trail right behind the coronavirus that causes Covid-19 and the influenza virus. Recent aerosol studies have now demonstrated that respiratory pathogens less than 5 micrometers are able to be transmitted from human-to-human capable of causing great morbidity and mortal...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510178

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-1 Infected Patients in a High Risk Border Region of South West Cameroon

Adamu Ndongho Ndifontiayong, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Jerimiah Mbogwe Ndimumeh, Jean Baptiste Sokoudjou, Jules-Roger Kuiate and Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 27, 2020

Coinfection of HIV with human retroviruses such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) has been associated with adverse liver disease outcomes including reduced survival, cancer and antiretroviral induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) among HIV-infected individuals diagnosed within six months in South West Cameroon and identified risk factors of coinfection. We performed a systematic screenin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510177

Tocilizumab Improves Survival in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás, Maria Bolaño Romero and Luis Moscote Salazar

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 22, 2020

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 continues to be the main objective of hundreds of scientific societies and world organizations, to mitigate the impact it has generated on the human race, and to seek a solution definite eradication. Recent research on the pathophysiological process generated by this disease in humans has identified key molecular aspects for the creation of vaccines, or the specific use of some medicines that can control the inflammatory process produced at the multi-systemic leve...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510176

High Mutation Rate in SARS-CoV-2: Will It Hit Us the Same Way Forever?

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás, Maria Bolaño Romero and Luis Moscote Salazar

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 22, 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic that currently plagues the world has infected over 37,601,848 people, killed 1,077,799 over people, and daily infects around 300,000 people. Different genomic studies indicate that SARS-CoV-2 originated from the bat or the pangolin, however, these conclusions are not substantial and it remains a global priority to detail all the characteristics of this agent, looking to discover therapeutic targets, explain the pathophysiological process it produces in humans, and describe ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510175

Remdesivir Mortality Benefit in Mechanically Ventilated COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Review

Sydney Asselstine, MD, Kevin Ly, MD, Zeeshan Khan, MD and Nirav Shah, DO

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 18, 2020

COVID-19 has presented unprecedented challenges due to the sparse availability of information surrounding the novel virus; continuing to gather data on the disease is vital for preventing further devastation. Remdesivir has been introduced as a potential treatment for the viral disease. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of Remdesivir on mortality in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. This observational study analyzed outcomes of ventilated COVID-19 positi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510174

A Rare Etiology for Injection Related Gluteal Abscess

Arunpandiyan Veerpandiyan, MBBS, DNB, Balaji Subramanian Srinivasa Sekaran, MBBS, Haji Mohammed Rahamathullah, MD and Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, MD

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: November 18, 2020

Chromoblastomycosis is a rare, chronic, indolent, granulomatous fungal infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by dematiaceous fungi. Chromoblastomycosis, though can be found throughout the world, is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Primary lesions appears as an erythematous papule or a warty growth that gradually enlarges to various forms and sizes. The infection most frequently affects lower extremities, especially feet and shins, but can rarely affect buttocks, tru...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510173

Self-Swab and Saliva Collection for the Diagnosis of Covid-19. What Do Patients Feel About Them?

Hwang SY, Tan SY, Tan PT and Siau C

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 07, 2020

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus being detected for tests for the illness COVID-19. The current gold standard for diagnosis of COVID-19 is a healthcare worker (HCW) performed nasopharyngeal (NP) swab. The IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America) suggests using nasopharyngeal, mid-turbinate, or nasal specimens rather than an oropharyngeal (or saliva) specimen because of limited data suggesting lower sensitivity with oropharyngeal specimens. However, subsequent studies have suggested that saliva speci...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510172

Infectious Diseases in Times of Conflict and War: The Loyal Companions

Isaac I, Malaeb M, Bou khalil A, Musharrafieh U and Bizri AR3

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: November 04, 2020

The association between war, conflict, massive force displacement and infectious diseases has long been established. The influx of large numbers of syrian refugees to Lebanon burdened the country’s infrastructure on several levels, including the public health sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association between certain reportable infectious diseases, and the presence of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Data, from non-governmental organizations and the Lebanese Ministry of Public H...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510171

Liver Abscess and Septic Pulmonary Dissemination by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Hispanic Male: A Case Report

Jorge Cardenas, Galit Balayla and Carlos I Bustamante

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 04, 2020

Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS) is a life-threatening condition with rising incidence across the globe. It is characterized by a monobacterial primary pyogenic liver abscess with or without additional dissemination. Some of the possible metastatic complications include endophthalmitis, lung nodules, meningitis, and potentially inflammation of any organ. Despite the wide distribution of common K. pneumoniae, invasive syndrome is often overlooked due to low incidence of hypervirulen...

Volume 6
Issue 6