|Outcomes (low values are favourable)||Means and percentages1||Unadjusted analyses: P values2||Adjusted P values3||Effect sizes for means4|
|Parenthood stress, means (1-5)||Low PD||Medium PD||High PD||Low-Medium PD DF=1||Medium-High PD DF=1||Low-High PD DF=1||All PD groups DF=2||Multiple logistic regressions||Low-Medium PD||Medium-High PD||Low-High PD|
|SPSQ: social isolation||1.99||2.29||2.43||<.0001||0.1689||<.0001||<.0001||<.0001||0.42||0.2||0.68|
|SPSQ: role restriction||3.36||3.66||3.82||<.0001||0.122||<.0001||<.0001||<.0001||0.4||0.22||0.63|
|SPSQ: spouse relationship||2.06||2.39||2.27||<.0001||0.3655||0.0515||<.0001||<.0001||0.41||-0.14||0.26|
|Difficultness, Bates, means (1-7)||3.51||3.7||3.91||0.0038||0.0934||0.0001||<.0001||0.0068||0.22||0.24||0.49|
|Child's mobility very/rather difficult to handle, %||5.8||8.2||17.5||0.1786||0.0296||0.0017||0.0015||0.0282|
|1 Low PD: N=856 (843-853). Medium PD: N=249 (244-249). High PD: N=63. Due to missing values, the numbers varied between different analyses.
2 Statistical methods: Student's t test (pairwise comparisons low-medium, medium-high, low-high, DF=1), ANOVAs (comparisons across all PD groups low, medium, high, DF=2), X2 and Fisher's exact test (percentages).
3 Adjusted for parity (first-born child vs. others), child gender, marital status (single vs. others). Statistical method: multiple logistic regressions with dichotomised variables, merging medium and high PD into one category. For spouse relationship stress, only mothers with a partner were included, and marital status was not included as a predictor in the logistic regression. N for the spouse relationship stress variable: low PD 806, medium PD 221, high PD 53.
4 Cohen's d.