Table 1: Summary of the Research Findings


Authors & Year of Publication


Definition of Electronic Health Record


Key Aims


Important results


Agharezaei et al., 2014 [18]



Computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS): An application that provides information for a safe patient care. It includes evidence-based standards and guidelines, procedures and protocols, regulations and suggestions for care, drug references, calculation instruments, and links to the library database as well as digital and internet references.

Nurses and physicians

To investigate the influence of CDSS on reducing the incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, followed by a user survey

Mixed methods:

Interviews and survey

o   Computer software can assist the medical staff with patient care

o   The CDSS system contributed to the improved quality of patient care since it sends reminders to physicians and nurses about prophylaxis measures

o   Nurses and physicians found it helpful to have the computerized system


Alasmary et al., 2014 [2]

Saudi Arabia

Electronic medical record (EMR): “An application environment that captures clinical data of patients individually composed with clinical decision support system, computerized order entry and clinical documentation applications”

Nurses and physicians

To explore the relationships between age, occupation, computer literacy, clinical productivity and user satisfaction with the EMR.

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   Nurses with higher computer literacy skills were more satisfied with the system


Alghenaimi, 2012 [16]


Al-Shifa: “The e-health application called Al-Shifa is an in-house health information management system designed by Oman’s Ministry of Health”


To assess the usefulness and ease of use of Al-Shifa to support the transition of care during nursing handoff

Mixed methods: Survey, interviews, participant observation and artifact analysis

o   Older nurses felt the Al-Shifa system was difficult to use at shift hand off

o   Nurses who felt the system was more useful and easy to use, used it more


Alquraini et al., 2007 [4]



Health Information System (HIS): No definition provided


1- To analyze the background characteristics that influence nurses’ attitudes towards the use of computerized HIS in Kuwaiti government hospitals


2) To assess their level of skills in computer use

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   Respondents generally had positive attitudes toward computerized HIS.

o   Gender, nationality, education levels, and duration of computer use were statistically significant predictors of attitudes toward computerized HIS.


Bahnassy, 2013 [5]

Saudi Arabia

Health Information System (HIS): No definition provided


To understand nurses’ perceptions of the HIS

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   Nurses spend more time charting on the HIS

o   Level of education and years of computer experience were significant predictors of satisfaction with use of the HIS


Darr et al.,

2003 [17]


Electronic Medical Record (EMR): a computerized system that replaces or supplements “the familiar patient files”

Nurses and Physicians

1-To discover the features and impacts of EMR usage that are most important to physicians and nurses


2- To understand attitudes towards EMR among staff members.

Qualitative utilizing interviews


o   Nurses expressed positive reactions to EMRs and its effect on their occupation.

o   Nurses valued EMRs in that it provided easy access to clinical and socio-economic information.


Kahouei et al., 2015 [1]


Electronic Patient Record (EPR): Electronic systems that store patient information and vary in terms of the specific functions

Supervisors and head nurses

To understand the perceptions of supervisors and head nurses views of the EPR and understand its impact on nursing management functions

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   Due to the low quality of the system, head nurses and supervisors need to seek out additional information

o   Head nurses and supervisors had a low level of computer literacy and 42.4% did not utilize a computer at home

o   Head nurses and supervisors with more computer knowledge and experience had better perceptions of computers at work


Moghadam & Fayaz-Bakhsh, 2014 [15]


Hospital Information System (HIS): a computerized system that collects, saves, processes, extracts, and links patient care information to management information

Nurses, Physicians and Allied Health Professionals

To evaluate the effectiveness of training courses for HIS.

Qualitative research utilizing interviews and focus groups

o   To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel


Saddik & Al-Mansour, 2014 [12]

Saudi Arabia

Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE): allows healthcare providers to electronically enter orders (laboratory, medication, imaging etc.) for patient care


To explore the perception of nurses regarding the CPOE support on nurse physician communication in the medication order process

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   Almost all nurses perceived that CPOE allowed easier accessibility to patients’ medication records and provided complete and legible drug prescriptions.

o   Most nurses agreed that more physician contact was required with CPOE

o   There was an increased need to contact the physician via the phone with CPOE


Secginli et al., 2014 [3]


Family Medicine Information System (FMIS): Documentation platform for health professionals

Nurses, physicians and midwives

To assess the attitudes of health professionals towards the FMIS

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   The majority of respondents felt the FMIS saved them time in documenting, decreased their use of paper, provided better access to data, supports clinical decision making and makes it easy to transfer data

o   Approximately half of respondents felt the FMIS facilitated communication between health professionals

o   Respondents felt that the FMIS takes more time than paper-based records, increases workload, was difficult to use, decreases interaction between the health professional and the patient, and has frequent ‘down-times’


Top et al., 2012 [13]


Electronic Medical Record (EMR): Computerized record of clinical, demographic and management information


To understand nurses’ views of the EMR in terms of use, quality and user satisfaction

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   59% of respondents felt the EMR was not well integrated into their workflow

o   Half of the nurses who responded had not been trained to use the EMR

o   Nurses do not use the EMR often. When they do use the EMR it is most often to retrieve lab results.

o   Nurses who used the system more often, were more satisfied with the EMR and felt the quality of the information was better


Walston et al., 2010 [14]

Saudi Arabia

Information technology (IT): The technology resources employed as the foundation of both communications across the organization and the implementation of present and future business applications.


To examine the effects of use of information technology and focus on patient safety and problem solving on the visibility of patient care errors

Quantitative cross sectional survey

o   The greater use of information technology to control patient care may reduce the prevalence of errors

o   An increased focus on patient safety and problem solving facilitates an open environment where errors can be more openly discussed and addressed