Table 1: Research studies assessing awareness of GINA.

Author & Date



 Study Purpose


Allain, Friedman & Senter [12]

1,699 members of a Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome advocacy group

Anonymous online questionnaire, 34 items

Examine awareness and attitudes about GINA

45.7% were aware of GINA before taking the survey p ≤ 0.0001

Fusina [9]

56 physicians affiliated with Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Anonymous online survey, 19 closed-ended questions and one open- ended question

Examine awareness of GINA by physicians

42.9% were aware of GINA p = 0.0004

Garrison [10]

1,076 members of FORCE, (Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered) advocacy group and clients of Ohio State’s Clinical Cancer Genetics Program

Anonymous online survey, 33 multiple- choice questions

Evaluate consumer knowledge and attitudes of GINA

52.1 % of respondents were aware of GINA before the study

 p < 0.02

Laedtke, O’Neill, Rubinstein & Vogel [13]

401 members of American Academy of Family Physicians

Mailed/online survey. Number of items on survey not reported

Evaluate physician’s awareness/knowledge of GINA

45.5% aware of GINA.10.3% self- reported knowledge of GINA,

p < 0.001

Huang, Huston, & Perri [14]

295 general population panel of U.S. citizens, ages


17-item survey, included 2 questions to measure awareness/knowledge of GINA

Evaluate consumer awareness of genetic discrimination and GINA

8.8% were aware of GINA, 3.4% knew GINA prohibits improper use of genetic information, p value not reported

Pamarti [11]

257 genetic counselors from National Society of Genetic Counselors

32- item online survey, adapted from previous surveys

Assess knowledge about the scope of GINA and genetic discrimination in clients

56% aware of general provisions of GINA, 99.3% knew about GINA’s health insurance protections p < 0.05

Qurehi, Warda, Rahaghi, Ferrer, Ramirez, Rahaghi [15]

41 physicians at Cleveland Clinic/Florida

Questionnaire - number of items and type not reported

Evaluate personal practice of ordering lab tests and awareness of GINA

39% aware of protections offered by GINA. 99%

wanted to find out more about GINA, p value not reported