Table 1: Characteristics of included studies.

Study Methods Participants Interventions Outcomes Notes
McMillan, et al. [15] RCT, parallel groups. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups 30 patients Have craniofacial pain aged 23 to 53 years Group A: 0.5 mL Procaine (1%) local anesthetic (LA) with no vasoconstrictor and An acupuncture needle (simulated dry needling)

Group B: acupuncture needle and A drop of isotonic saline (simulated LA)

Group C: acupuncture needle and a drop of isotonic saline (simulated dry needling andLA).
Pain pressure Thresholds (PPT) were measured using an algometer, taken 5 minutes before treatment (baseline data) and 5 minutes after treatment.

Pain- Measuring Scales were measured using VAS.

a)pain intensity

b) pain unpleasantness were recorded prior to treatment, 5 minutes after treatment, immediately before the second series of PPT measurements, 1 hour later, and 24 hours later.
United Kingdom
Venancio, et al. [47] RCT. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups 60 patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years, with myofascial pain and headache Group 1: dry- needling;

Group 2: lidocaine at 0.25%, without vasoconstrictor; and

Group 3: botulinum toxin 25 or 50U;

Group 4: lidocaine 0.25%, without vasoconstrictor + 0.2 ml of corticoid (Decadron four mg/ml).
1. The modified Symptom Severity Index (SSI) is composed of three subscales of pain: frequency, intensity, duration. Each sub-scale may vary on a scale of 28 points on VAS

2. Palpation of the trigger point and reproduction headache

3. Pain diary

4. Pain questionnaire The patients were assessed before, ten minutes after, one week, four weeks, and 12 weeks after the injections