Table 1: Causes of transient UI (DIAPPERS).
|D- Delirium||Incontinence is a secondary feature and resolves once delirium improve. Common causes of delirium include acute
medical conditions like stroke, infection, pain, fractures, medications, changes in environment, recent surgery, etc.
|I- Symptomatic urinary infection||Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among the elderly and does not cause UI.|
|A- Atrophic vaginitis||Causes local irritability and contributes to UI.|
|P- Pharmacological||Anticholinergics, diuretics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives/hypnotics, anti-Parkinson's treatment, etc.|
|E- Excessive urine output||Diabetes Insipidus, excess fluid intake, diuretics- incl alcohol and caffeinated drinks, heart failure. Peripheral oedema.|
|R- Restricted mobility||Immobility due to restraint use, pain, lower limb arthritis, functional decline.|
|S- Stool impaction|