Table 1: Causes of transient UI (DIAPPERS).

D- Delirium Incontinence is a secondary feature and resolves once delirium improve. Common causes of delirium include acute
medical conditions like stroke, infection, pain, fractures, medications, changes in environment, recent surgery, etc.
I- Symptomatic urinary infection Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among the elderly and does not cause UI.
A- Atrophic vaginitis Causes local irritability and contributes to UI.
P- Pharmacological Anticholinergics, diuretics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives/hypnotics, anti-Parkinson's treatment, etc.
P- Psychological Depression.
E- Excessive urine output Diabetes Insipidus, excess fluid intake, diuretics- incl alcohol and caffeinated drinks, heart failure. Peripheral oedema.
R- Restricted mobility Immobility due to restraint use, pain, lower limb arthritis, functional decline.
S- Stool impaction