Table 1: Benefits to the helper in each altruism theories.
|Theory||Perspective||Benefit to helper|
|Evolutional||Genetic selection for survival of species||Survival of species|
|Equity||Equity in interpersonal relationships||Expect help from others|
|Negative affect||Stimulation by negative emotions||Emotional healing|
|Empathy||Genuine feelings of concern||Appreciation, respect|
|Normative (reciprocity)||"Do unto others as you like them do to you"||Reciprocal expectation of favour|
|Normative (pro-social)||Socio-cultural expectation with antidote||Hidden rewards; unwritten 'penalties vs. reputation'|