Table 1: Benefits to the helper in each altruism theories.

Theory Perspective Benefit to helper
Evolutional Genetic selection for survival of species Survival of species
Equity Equity in interpersonal relationships Expect help from others
Negative affect Stimulation by negative emotions Emotional healing
Empathy Genuine feelings of concern Appreciation, respect
Normative (reciprocity) "Do unto others as you like them do to you" Reciprocal expectation of favour
Normative (pro-social) Socio-cultural expectation with antidote Hidden rewards; unwritten 'penalties vs. reputation'