Table 1: Criteria for the validity of an animal model of depression.

Criteria Manifestation
Face validity Cardinal symptoms of depression manifested by patients should be simulated in animals.
Construct validity Realistic use of inducing conditions to bring about pathophysiological changes that occur in patients with depression, such as changes in the HPA axis, hippocampal atrophy, and neurotransmitters in animal.
Predictive validity Behavioral changes should be responsive to appropriate antidepressant drugs.