Table 1: Baseline characteristics in the overall study sample and according to treatment group.

Variablea

Control group

Study group

p

Demographics

 

 

 

n

87

136

 

Age

68.5 14.9

73.8 9.6

< 0.01

Male sex

60 (69%)

92 (67.6%)

 

Weight

85.8 17.3

91.4 20.9

 

Body mass index

29.9 5.6

32.2 6.6

< 0.01

Obesity (BMI > 30)

67 (77%)

64 (47%)

 

Metabolic variables

 

 

 

Diabetes type 1

4 (4.6%)

3 (2.2%)

 

Diabetes type 2

83 (95.4%)

133 (97.8%)

 

Time since diabetes diagnosis (years)

14.9 11.2

16 11.3

 

Admission HbA1c (%)

7.9 1.6

7.8 1.4

 

Initial blood glucose level (mmol/L)

12 5.9

10.8 4.2

 

Medication on admission

 

 

 

Metformin

37 (42.5%)

44 (32.4%)

 

Sulfonylurea

18 (20.7%)

21 (15.4%)

 

Other oral antidiabetic agents

13 (14.9%)

43 (31.6%)

 

Insulin

26 (29.9%)

49 (36%)

 

Total daily insulin dose (U)

29.1 19.3

11.3 19.2

 

Hospital variables

 

 

 

Cause of hospitalisation

 

 

 

LRTI

44 (50.6%)

28 (20.6%)

 

Acute cardiac condition

43 (49.4%)

108 (79.4%)

 

Medication in hospital

 

 

 

Steroid treatment

15 (17.2%)

20 (14.7%)

 

Metformin

39 (44.8%)

32 (23.5%)

 

Sulfonylurea

27 (31%)

10 (7.4%)

 

Other oral antidiabetic agents

12 (13.8%)

48 (35.3%)

 

 

BMI: body-mass index; LRTI: lower respiratory tract infection; SD: standard deviation

Significant p-values are shown.

Variables are expressed as number (percentage) in study sample or group or as mean [ SD].