Table 3: Clinical and cognitive features between lower and higher cognitive group. The frequency of SPD and CD errors was significantly common in the lower cognitive group

Lower cognitive group (n=286) Higher cognitive group (n=218) p-value
Age (yrs) 70.55 63.97 0.00
Female (%) 151 (52.8%) 116 (53.2%) ns
Education 7.8 4.3 10.1 4.1 0.00
Mean K-MMSE scores 24.7 0.8 28.1 1.0 0.00
Mean 3MS scores 74.8 7.5 87.3 6.4 0.00
Mean CDT score 7.1 3.0 8.6 2.0 0.00
Mean CDT time 62.1 28.1 48.0 28.5 0.00
Error type (%) SBR 24.1 29 ns
CD 53.8 41.9 0.00
SPD 76.6 67.7 0.00
PE 8.9 25.8 ns


Yrs: years; K-MMSE: Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, 3MS: Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test, CDT: Clock Drawing Test, SBR: Stimulus-bound Response, CD: Conceptual Deficit, SPD: Spatial and/or Planning Deficit, PE: Perseveration Error, ns: no significance.