Table 1: Fracture predictors at the examination in 1995 for fractures occurring thereafter and their age-adjusted odds ratios (OR), and mean SD for fractured vs. non-fractured individuals.

Variable, 1995, n (%)

No fracture after 1995 (n = 1406)

Fracture after 1995

(n = 210)

p value*

OR (95% CI)**

Age, years, n (%)

45.6 (11.2)

52.6 (9.4)

0.0000

1.06 (1.05-1.08)

Gender

Men (all), n (%)

668 (47.5)

78 (37.1)

 

 

Women (all), n (%)

738 (52.5)

132 (62.9)

0.0070

1.59 (1.17-2.16)

Women vs. men and age group***

25-34 years

310

14

0.0595

0.32 (0.01-1.04)

35-44 years

377

30

0.7869

1.11 (0.52-2.35)

45-54 years

362

73

0.0063

2.14 (1.24-3.71)

55-64 years

357

93

0.0061

1.93 (1.21-3.09)

Height, cm

171.8 (9.5)

169.4 (9.1)

0.0009

0.98 (0.97-1.00)

Weight, kg

74.4 (14.2)

74.7 (14.8)

0.9249

1.00 (0.99-1.01)

Body mass index, kg/m2

25.1 (4.0)

25.9 (4.3)

0.0105

1.01 (0.98-1.05)

Waist, cm

85.2 (12.6)

86.6 (12.6)

0.2861

1.00 (0.98-1.01)

Hip, cm

99.9 (8.6)

101.0 (8.4)

0.2092

1.00 (0.99-1.02)

Waist/hip ratio

0.851 (0.086)

0.855 (0.083)

0.8589

0.26 (0.05-1.53)

Systolic blood pressure, mmHg

127.9 (18.6)

133.3 (20.3)

0.0001

1.00 (0.99-1.01)

Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg

81.8 (10.5)

83.3 (10.4)

0.0181

0.99 (0.98-1.01)

SOS, m/s

1528 (31)

1517 (30)

0.0001

0.99 (0.99-1.00)

BUA, dB/Hz

109.5 (11.8)

106.0 (9.2)

0.0002

0.98 (0.97-1.00)

Stiffness, %

81.1 (14.6)

75.3 (13.3)

0.0000

0.98 (0.97-1.00)

Physical activity at work, 1-4, low-high, n (%) 1

466 (35.0)

61 (34.1)

 

 

2

494 (37.1)

59 (33.0)

 

 

3

318 (23.9)

52 (29.1)

 

 

4

55 (4.1)

7 (3.9)

0.4152

1.10 (0.92-1.33)

Physical activity at leisure, 1-4, low-high, n (%) 1

247 (18.5)

50 (26.0)

 

 

2

811 (60.7)

120 (62.5)

 

 

3

254 (19.0)

21 (10.9)

 

 

4

23 (1.7)

1 (0.5)

0.0004

0.67 (0.52-0.87)

Smokers, 1-3, current, ex, non, n (%) 1

356 (25.6)

56 (26.9)

 

 

2

326 (23.4)

44 (21.2)

 

 

3

711 (51.0)

108 (51.9)

0.9381

1.03 (0.86-1.23)

S-cholesterol, mmol/l

5.78 (1.22)

6.07 (1.10)

0.0002

0.99 (0.86-1.13)

S-triglycerides, mmol/l

1.57 (1.10)

1.65 (0.90)

0.0199

0.98 (0.85-1.12)

P-fibrinogen, g/l

2.76 (0.54)

2.90 (0.60)

0.0024

1.13 (0.84-1.53)

IGF-1, g/l

166.4 (60.0)

144.9 (50.8)

0.0049

1.00 (0.99-1.00)

S-PTH, ng/l

37.1 (14.5)

40.6 (15.9)

0.0996

1.01 (0.99-1.03)

S-Osteocalcin, g/l

9.24 (2.79)

9.09 (2.80)

0.5511

0.99 (0.90-1.09)

Previous fracture, n (%)

194 (13.8)

18 (8.6)

0.0400

0.50 (0.30-0.83)

HRT, women, n (%)

188 (25.5)

38 (28.8)

0.1003

1.21 (0.82-1.79)

Antihypertensives, n (%)

96 (6.8)

25 (11.9)

0.0189

1.11 (0.68-1.80)

Antidiabetics, n (%)

35 (2.5)

10 (4.8)

0.1106

1.27 (0.60-2.66)

Tranquilizers, n (%)

144 (10.2)

37 (17.6)

0.0038

1.52 (1.02-2.29)

Myocardial infarction before 1995, n (%)

20 (1.4)

6 (2.9)

0.2182

1.13 (0.44-2.89)

Stroke before 1995, n (%)

12 (0.9)

10 (4.8)

0.0003

3.44 (1.45-8.17)

Stroke or Myocardial infarction before 1995, n (%)

29 (2.1)

13 (6.2)

0.0033

1.78 (0.89-3.53)

Myocardial infarction after 1995, n (%)

31 (2.2)

12 (5.7)

0.0100

3.01 (2.37-4.83)

Stroke after 1995, n (%)

50 (3.6)

27 (12.9)

0.0000

3.49 (2.05-5.83)

Stroke or Myocardial infarction after 1995, n (%)

81 (5.8)

39 (18.6)

0.0000

3.23 (2.08-4.94)

 

*p value corresponds to the unadjusted analysis. **ORs correspond to the age-adjusted analysis. ***Fractures in the age strata are adjusted for sex.

SOS: Speed of Sound; BUA: Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation; IGF-1: Insulin-like Growth Factor-1; PTH: Parathyroid Hormone; HRT: Estrogen Hormone Replacement Therapy