Table 2: Advantages, limitations, and reported solutions of organoids as study models.
|Outlet to study human diseases which are difficult to study in animal models.||Loss of oncogene drive in rich growth factor conditions .||Opt to use Matrigel/hydrogel devoid of growth factors .|
|More complete profile of disease compared to 2D cell lines .||Cost and difficulty to scale-up .||Development of hanging drop protocols or magnetic cell levitation.|
|Faster reaction endpoints and quantitative data collection compared to animal studies [14,41,64,71].||Weak vascularization leading to hypoxia which triggers activation of genes to mediate cell survival .||Hypoxic conditions have been displayed in vivo and thus, might be its natural phenotype .|
|More practical for immunofluorescence [14,71].|
|Derivable from various tissue sources.
Fibrinogen and fibroblasts which can cross-link with PEG to form hydrogel can be used to study metastasis based on stiffness of product [92,93].
|Murine origin of Matrigel might not be compatible to be transplanted back into humans .||Use other types of matrix which are compatible to humans (e.g. hydrogel).|
|Phenotype retained for up to 70 days .||Rigidity of ECM component might dampen drug molecules introduced .|