Table 2: Advantages, limitations, and reported solutions of organoids as study models.

Advantages Limitations Reported solutions
Outlet to study human diseases which are difficult to study in animal models. Loss of oncogene drive in rich growth factor conditions [37]. Opt to use Matrigel/hydrogel devoid of growth factors [64].
More complete profile of disease compared to 2D cell lines [91]. Cost and difficulty to scale-up [95]. Development of hanging drop protocols or magnetic cell levitation.
Faster reaction endpoints and quantitative data collection compared to animal studies [14,41,64,71]. Weak vascularization leading to hypoxia which triggers activation of genes to mediate cell survival [94]. Hypoxic conditions have been displayed in vivo and thus, might be its natural phenotype [95].
More practical for immunofluorescence [14,71].
Derivable from various tissue sources.
Fibrinogen and fibroblasts which can cross-link with PEG to form hydrogel can be used to study metastasis based on stiffness of product [92,93].
Murine origin of Matrigel might not be compatible to be transplanted back into humans [97]. Use other types of matrix which are compatible to humans (e.g. hydrogel).
Phenotype retained for up to 70 days [74]. Rigidity of ECM component might dampen drug molecules introduced [93].