Table 1: Participant IWBF classification and medical diagnoses.

IWBF (International Wheelchair Basketball Federation) is the governing entity responsible for classifying wheelchair basketball athletes globally to ensure consistency and fairness during competition. Players are placed in groups based on their level of function in the vertical, forward, and sideways planes: Class 1- Little or no trunk movement in any plane, Class 2- Upper trunk rotation in the vertical plane, partial trunk movement in the forward plane, and little or no trunk movement in the sideways plane, Class 3- Complete trunk movement in the vertical and forward planes and little or no movement in the sideways plane, Class 4- Complete trunk movement in the vertical and forward planes, with complete movement to one side of the sideways plane, Class 4.5/Able-bodied - Complete trunk movement in all planes [9].

IWBF Classification Number of
participants (n)
Medical diagnoses
1 1 T9 SCI-C
1.5 1 Cerebral Palsy
2 2 T8 SCI-C
2.5 5 T9 SCI-I, Single BKA, Spina Bifida, Double BKA
3 1 Spina Bifida
3.5 6 Double BKA, T12 SCI-I, Spina Bifida, Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Dysautonomia w/ small fiber neuropathy
4 3 Single AKA, Fibula Limb Deficiency, Single FA, Unilateral lower leg dystrophy
4.5 2 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Hip fusion
AB 19 Normal function/no disability

AB = Able-Bodied; T = Thoracic Vertebra; SCI-C = Spinal Cord Injury, Complete; SCI-I = Spinal Cord Injury, Incomplete; BKA = Below Knee Amputation; AKA = Above Knee Amputation; FA = Foot Amputation.