Table 1: Urological problems, radiological findings, and management of Ochoa syndrome patients [4].

Urological Problems

Radiological Findings


- Febrile UTIs

- Incontinence or enuresis

- Constipation

- Voiding problems

Upper urinary tract dilatation

Residual urine

Low-capacity, poorly compliant bladder

Vesicoureteral reflux

Renal scarring

Antibiotic prophylaxis


Clean intermittent catheterization

Intravesical botulinium toxin injection

Bowel management

Augmentation cystoplasty