Table 1: Demographic and clinical characteristics of recruited patients.

 

Baseline Characteristics

Cases (N = 33)

Age (years)

56.61 7.87

Gender

Male/Female

 

26 (79%)/7 (21%)

Smoking status

Current smokers/Ex-smokers/Passive smokers

Smoking index [p/yr (mean SD)]

 

11 (33%)/15 (46%)/7 (21%)

40.25 22.96

Type of smoking

Cigarette smoking

Water pipe smoking

 

24 (72.7%)

2 (6%)

Presence of co-morbidities

Hypertension

Diabetes Mellitus

OSA

Ischemic heart disease

Others

24 (73%)

13 (37%)

7 (21%)

10 (30.3%)

3 (9.1%)

3 (9.1%)

Pulmonary hypertension; mPAP (mmHg)

23 (88.5%); 31.35 6.45

Pulmonary function test:

FEV1/ FVC

FEV1 (L)

FEV1% predicted

 

53.41 10.45

1.23 0.58

43.7 18.2

History of exacerbation

< 3 times/year; previous MN

≥ 3 times/year; previous MV

 

11 (33%); 3 (9%)

22 (67%); 6 (18%)

 

 

OSA: obstructive sleep apnea, p/yr: pack/year, mPAP: mean pulmonary artery pressure, FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1st second, FEV1/ FVC ratio: the forced expiratory volume in 1st second / the forced vital capacity.