Table 1: First generation stem cell-based studies in ischemic heart disease

Study name

Study ID, PI


Stem Cell Type

Cell manipulation

Cell Number and route of administration

Effect on Ejection Fraction (EF)

Reinfusion of Enriched Progenitor Cells And Infarct Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction


Schachinger V. et al. [2]



Density gradient (Ficoll) centrifugation

1.98 × 108, intracoronary injection  in  X-VIVO™ 10 medium and 20% autologous serum

Positive by LV angiography

Bone-marrow-derived cell transfer after ST-elevation myocardial infarction

BOOST Woller K. C. et al. [2]



Density gradient (Ficoll) centrifugation

2.4 × 109, intracoronary injection (4 or five  injections in heparinized saline)

Positive by MRI

Effects of intracoronary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells on left ventricular function.

FINCELL Huikuri, H. V. et al. [3]



Density gradient (Ficoll) centrifugation

3.6 × 109, intracoronary injection  in  unspecified medium and 50% autologous serum

Positive by echocardiography

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction

ASTAMI Lunde K. et al. [6]



Density gradient (Ficoll) centrifugation

6.8 × 107, intracoronary injection  in  heparin-treated plasma

No change by CT (SPECT)

Intracoronary infusion of mononuclear cells from bone marrow or peripheral blood compared with standard therapy in patients after acute myocardial infarction treated by primary PCI

HEBE Hirsch  A. et al. [5]



Density gradient

(Lymphoprep) centrifugation

2.96 × 108, intracoronary injection  in  sodium heparin and 4% Human Serum Albumin (HSA)

No change by MRI

SWiss multicenter Intracoronary Stem cells Study in Acute Myocardial Infarction

SWISS-AMI, Sürder D. et al. [7]



Density gradient (Ficoll) centrifugation

≥ 5 × 107, intracoronary injection In 10 ml of X-VIVO 10 with 20% of autologous serum

No change by Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)

Cardiac Stem Cells in patients with Ischaemic cardiomyopathy

SCIPIO Bolli R. et al. [8]


c-kit-positive resident Cardiac Stem Cells

Cell culture and Magnetic sorting (MACS)


0.5 × 106 to 1 × 106, intracoronary injection  in PlasmaLyte A

Positive by Echocardiography

Intracoronary cardiosphere-derived cells for heart regeneration after myocardial infarction

CADUCEUS  Makkar R.R. et al. [10]


Cardiosphere-derived cells

Cell culture of primary explant to obtain 3D cardiospheres.

1.3 × 107 to 2.5 × 107,  intracoronary injection  in  in normal saline, heparin (100 U/ml) and nitroglycerin (50 µg/ml)

No change by cMRI.

(Further advancement in ALLSTAR and RECONSTRUCT trials)


Cardiopoietic stem Cell therapy in heart failURE


Bartunek, J. et al. [11]


Cardiopoietic hMSCs

Cell culture  guidance and lineage specification

6.0 × 108 to 1.2 × 109, NOGA guided injections of 5% HAS in lactated Ringer’s solution.

Positive by Echocardiography.

(Further advancement in CHART-1 and CHART-2 trials)











































Abbreviations: MI = Myocardial Infarction; AMI = Acute Myocardial Infarction; BMMNCs = Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells; SPECT = Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography;

LV = Left ventricular; MRI = Magnetic Resonance Imaging; PCI = Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; hMSCs = human Mesenchymal Stem Cells; HSA = Human Serum Albumin.