Table 2: Multilevel models (odds ratios) estimating antenatal care visits, Nepal 2011 (N = 4,018).

 

Measures

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Explanatory variables

 

 

 

Who decides on women's health care

(Ref = Husband only)

 

 

 

††† Women alone

1.35*

-

-

††† Husband and wife both

1.42***

-

-

†††† Others

1.07

-

-

Who decides on household purchases?

(Ref = Husband only)

 

 

 

††† Women alone

-

1.32*

-

††† Husband and wife both

-

1.24+

-

†††† Others

-

1.22

-

Who decides on visits to family or relatives?

(Ref = Husband only)

 

 

 

††† Women alone

-

-

1.32*

††† Husband and wife both

-

-

1.25+

†††† Others

-

-

1.29*

Controls

 

 

 

††† Motherís age (years)

1.04

1.05

1.06

††† Motherís age squared

1.00

1.00

1.00

Education (Ref = No education)

 

 

 

††† Primary

1.75***

1.75***

1.77***

††† Secondary

2.28***

2.34***

2.37***

††† Higher education

7.32***

7.55***

7.57***

††† Number of children ever born

0.81***

0.81***

0.81***

††† Currently living with spouse/partner (Yes = 1)

0.83+

0.87

0.87

Occupation (Ref = Not working)

 

 

 

††† Professional, clerical, service

1.02

1.05

1.04

††† Agriculture

0.90

0.89

0.89

††† Others (skilled, unskilled and others)

1.16

1.18

1.17

Caste/ethnicity: (Ref = Bahun/Chhetri)

 

 

 

††† Terai Others

0.69+

0.67+

0.67+

††† Hill Dalit

1.12

1.10

1.11

††† Terai Dalit

0.55*

0.55*

0.55*

††† Newar

1.39

1.37

1.38

††† Hill Janajati

0.69***

0.69***

0.69**

††† TeraiJanajati

1.23

1.21

1.21

††† Muslims

0.67

0.66

0.67

Husbandís education (Ref = No education)

 

 

 

††† Primary

1.32*

1.32*

1.31*

††† Secondary

1.70***

1.67***

1.65***

††† Higher

1.46*

1.45*

1.43+*

Husbandís occupation (Ref = Agriculture)

 

 

 

††† Professional/clerical

1.35*

1.33*

1.36*

††† Service

1.30*

1.29*

1.31*

††† Skilled manual

1.06

1.05

1.06

††† Unskilled manual

0.98

0.98

0.99

†††† Others (others and donít know)

0.76

0.75

0.75

Wealth Index (Ref = Lowest quartile)

 

 

 

†† Second

1.05

1.05

1.05

†† Third

1.32*

1.32*

1.32*

†† Fourth

1.71***

1.68***

1.66**

††† Highest quartile

2.54***

2.52***

2.49***

†††† Distance to health facility:A big problem (Yes = 1)

0.80*

0.81*

0.80*

Geo-ecological regions

 

 

 

†† Hill

0.96

0.96

0.96

†† Terai

0.84

0.82

0.84

Rural-urban residence

 

 

 

†† Rural

1.02

1.00

0.99

†† Intercept

0.39

0.34

0.30

†† Generalized chi-square

3557.12

3554.61

3559.67

†† -2 Res log pseudo-likelihood

18642.15

18624.97

18626.96

 

+p < .10, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001