Table 1: Potential epidemiological and environmental dissimilarities among Arabs and Jews that might influence IBD trends in Israel.

Environmental factor Arab Jews References
Doctor-patient relationship Islamic medical ethics International medical ethics [14,15]
Smoking High low [16-18]
Life expectancy low high [18]
Obesity high low [18]
Social inequality lower higher [18]
Mortality & morbidity higher lower [19,20]
Eating disorders low high [21-23]
Weight/self-criticism concerns higher lower [23]
Alcohol heavy consumption higher lower [24]
Hospitalization rate for chronic disease higher lower [25]
Economic difficulties→inadequate medical care higher lower [25]
Faith in traditional therapy higher lower [25]
Modesty, gender preference, illness causation misconceptions higher lower [26]
Physical activity low high [25]
Social trust, perceived helpfulness, trust in authorities, social support low high [27]
Subjective reported health high lower [28]
larger households, with tobacco smokers high lower [29]
Breastfed high lower [29]
Hospitalized and used antibiotics recently high lower [29]