Table 1: Summary of variables.





11-item CES-D scale (α at T1 = 0.78, α at T2 = 0.78).

7-item short-form HADS scale (α at T1 = 0.73, α at T2 = 0.69).



Neighborhood Social Cohesion

Previously validated 5-item psychometric scale (α at T1= 0.69, α at T2 = 0.70). Responses were rated 1-5 from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Items “were close-knit area”, “people willing to help”, “people don't share the same values”, “people can be trusted”, and “people don't get along with each other”, respectively. The third and fifth items were reverse coded to ensure same directionality.

Neighborhood Problems

Previously validated 5-item psychometric scale (α at T1= 0.79, α at T2 = 0.78) based on cleanliness, noise, traffic, overcrowding, and smell/pollution. Responses were rated 1-5 with increasing disorderliness. Item four, overcrowding, was deleted to improve the reliability of both scales. Higher scores represent greater problems in the neighborhood.

Neighborhood Social Ties

Previously validated 3-item psychometric scale (α at T1= 0.75, α at T2 = 0.76). Likert-like scale based on the frequency of visits from neighbors, frequency of people doing favors, and frequency of people asking for advice. Responses were rate 0-3 from ‘never’ to ‘often’. Higher scores represented better social ties.

Perceived Neighborhood Danger

Previously validated 3-item psychometric scale (α at T1= 0.83, α at T2 = 0.81) based on fear of going out at night, expectations of trouble in the area, and big chance at going out after dark. Responses were rated 1-5 from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’. Higher scores represented higher perceived danger in the neighborhood.

Self-rated physical Health

Rated on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 from Poor to Excellent. Respondents were asked: Would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?

Note: CES-D: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; T1: Time 1 for Wave 2; T2: Time 2 for Wave 3.