Table 1: Clinical characteristics of non-obese and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on blood pressure measured at basal and end-point, respectively.

 

Variable

Obese patients

Non-Obese patients

P value

Basal

End-point

Basal

End-point

Basal

End-point

(n = 153)

(n = 116)

(n = 247)

(n = 284)

Age (years)

64 10

71 10**

65 9

73 10**

0.306

0.07

Gender (Male/Female)

78/75

63/53

135/112

150/134

1.000

1.000

(51)/(49)

(54)/(46)

(55)/(45)

(53)/(47

1.000

1.000

Diabetes duration (years)

14 11

22 8**

15 11

23 12**

0.377

0.41

BMI (kg/m2)

27 3

28 3

22 3

22 2

< 0.001

< 0.001 

25-39

25-39

15-24

15-24.9

Blood pressure (mmHg)

Clinic systolic pressure

147 27

134 19**

142 24

129 14**

0.054

0.001

Clinic diastolic pressure

86 16

75 15**

84 15

73 18**

0.208

0.200

Morning systolic pressure

146 22

131 18**

139 23

125 84**

0.002

0.254

Morning diastolic pressure

83 12

73 13**

79 12

70 13**

0.001

0.037

Laboratory variables

HbA1c(NGSP) (%)

7.2 1.1

7.3 1.1

7.0 1.0

7.0 1.1

0.062

0.014

Triglycerides (mg/dl)

168 143

148 11

139 87

116 79**

0.025

0.001

Total cholesterol (mg/dl)

200 29

189 34

197 34

185 34**

0.348

0.289

LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)

112 27

108 25

109 31

102 25**

0.324

0.03

HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)

58 20

53 13

61 18

59 13

0.922

0.001

Serum creatinine (mg/dl)

0.8 0.3

0.9 0.5

0.8 0.3

0.9 0.5

1.000

1.000

UAER (mg/g creatinine)

243 808

270 795

100 299

135 795

0.037

0.124

Medical events

Microvascular complications

105 (67)

105 (91)*

137 (55)

137 (48)*

1.000

1.000

Retinopathy

66 (43)

47 (41) 

82 (29)

92 (32)

1.000

1.000

Nor/simp/pre/pro

87/39/7/20

69/23/4/20

177/42/7/21

192/51/8/33

Nephropathy

70 (46)

46 (40)*

103 (42)

46 (16)**

1.000

1.000

Nor/simp/mac/dial

76/57/20/0

70/32/11/3

144/89/14/0

175/92/16/1

Neuropathy

16 (10)

12 (10)

19 (8)

20 (7)

1.000

1.000

Macrovascular complications

39 (25)

19 (16)**

57 (23)

31 (11)**

1.000

1.000

Medical treatment

Therapy for hypertension

87 (57)

76 (66)

107 (43)

175 (63)**

1.000

1.000

Therapy of medicines for diabetes mellitus

129 (84)

108 (91)*

203 (82)

262 (93)*

1.000

1.000

Non-insulin/insulin

101/65 

90/69

147/96

220/134

(66)/(42)

(78)/(59)*

(60)/(39)

(77)/(47)*

1.000

1.000

Therapy for dyslipidemia

64 (42)

45 (39)

66 (27)

86 (30)

1.000

1.000

Therapy for hypercoagulation

41 (27)

29 (25)

48 (19)

57 (20)

1.000

1.000

Therapies for others

49 (32)

25 (22)

69 (28)

80 (28)

1.000

1.000

 

Clinical characteristics of non-obese and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on blood pressure measured at basal and end-points were shown, respectively. The non-obesity and obesity were defined by the criteria of Japan Society for the Study of Obesity. Body mass Index with < 25.0 kg/m2 was defined as non-obesity, whereas BMI with 25.0 kg/m2 was defined as obesity. Blood pressure using clinic method (CBP) and home method (HBP) measured once in each clinic visit and in the same morning at each clinic visit within 10 minutes after awakening in the sitting position were measured at basal and end-point, respectively, as shown as the same threshold of normotension with of less than 130 mmHg measurements in morning HBP and CBP. Number in parenthesis represents the percent ratio of each variable to patients participated in each group. Differences in the mean of each variable between non-obese and obese patients at basal and end-point were statistically evaluated by unpaired Student t test with or without Welch's correction.* and ** showed the values of P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 of each variable in groups of basal vs. end-point, respectively. P value (Basal and Endpoint) showed the statistical difference in each variable in patients with non-obesity and obesity at basal and end-point, respectively. Two tailed values of P < 0.05 were defined as statistically significant.

 

Abbreviation: BMI: Body mass index, HDL: High density lipoprotein, LDL: Low density lipoprotein, NGSP: National glycohemoglobin standardization program, UAER: Urinary albumin excretion rate, Nor-normal retinopathy or normal albuminuria, simp-simple retinopathy or simple albuminuria, pre-preproliferative retinopathy, pro-proliferative retinopathy, mac-macro albuminuria, dia-dialysis.