Table 4: Analysis of the association of demographic and other factors with trypanosome infections in cattle.

 

Variable

N

Positives

Ratios

[ 95% CI]

χ2

p-value

Sex

Male

53

27 (50.94%)

(OR) 0.9729

0.5279

1.7928

0.0078

0.9297

Female

184

95 (51.63%)

(RR) 0.986

0.7215

1.3475

Age

1-3 years

78

38 (48.72%)

(OR) 1.1789

0.6855

2.0277

0.3543

0.5517

> 3 years

159

84 (68.85%)

(RR) 1.1167

0.7763

1.6065

Body condition

Poor

126

70 (55.56%)

(OR) 0.7051

0.4224

1.1769

1.7918

0.1807

Good

111

52 (46.85%)

(RR) 0.8362

0.6435

1.0865

Breed

TSHZ

133

67 (50.38%)

(OR) 0.9044

0.5411

1.5115

0.147

0.7013

(RR) 0.9494

0.7277

1.2388

Boran

71

35 (49.30%)

(OR) 0.8828

0.5062

1.5395

0.193

0.6603

(RR) 0.9386

0.7098

1.5395

Ankole

10

7 (70%)

(OR) 2.2725

0.5732

9.0087

0.3353 (F)

(RR) 1.6446

0.6323

4.2777

0.5016

13.9101 (F)

Cross

23

13 (56.52%)

(OR) 1.2523

0.5263

2.9798

0.2595

0.6104

(RR) 1.1285

0.6944

1.8339

Source

Born

222

112 (50.45%)

(OR) 1.9643

0.6504

5.9324

0.9012

0.3424

Purchased

15

10 (66.67%)

(RR) 1.4865

0.7179

3.0781

Mucous membranes

Pale

97

51 (52.58%)

(OR) 0.9281

0.5527

1.5584

0.0225

0.8807

Normal

140

71 (50.71%)

(RR) 0.9622

0.7356

1.2587

Owner activities

Only livestock

178

88 (48.44%)

(OR) 1.3909

0.7678

2.5196

1.1896

0.2754

Livestock and other

59

34 (57.63%)

(RR) 1.1933

0.8569

1.6617

Livestock market

Not available

48

13 (27.08%)

(OR) 3.6683

1.8235

7.3792

14.3388

0.0001

Available

189

109 (57.67%)

(RR) 1.7227

1.3556

2.1891

Treatment

Oxytetracyclin & Berenil

143

77 (53.85%)

(OR) 1.2704

0.7542

2.1398

0.8103

0.368

(RR) 1.1294

0.8687

1.4684

Aceturate Diminazene (Berenil)

212

111 (52.36%)

(OR) 1.3987

0.6072

3.222

0.6255

0.429

(RR) 1.1754

0.8078

1.7103

Isometamidium chloride (Samorin)

19

13 (68.42%)

(OR) 2.1667

0.7946

5.9081

1.6941

0.1930 (Y)

(RR) 1.5833

0.8061

3.1099

Homidium chloride (Novidium)

20

13 (65%)

(OR) 1.8401

0.7069

4.7896

1.0626

0.3026 (Y)

(RR) 1.422

0.7711

2.6224

Prevention

Pyrethroids

231

120 (51.95%)

(OR) 2.1622

0.3884

12.0376

0.4349 (F)

(RR) 1.3874

0.7757

2.4816

0.3022

24.2655 (F)

Organophosphorus

10

3 (30%)

(OR) 0.389

0.0981

1.542

0.2052 (F)

(RR) 0.6797

0.443

1.0429

0.0636

1.7631 (F)

Water source

River

181

95 (52.49%)

(OR) 1.1865

0.6512

2.1616

0.3125

0.5761

(RR) 1.0899

0.8111

1.4646

Water well

84

46 (54.76%)

(OR) 1.2265

0.7191

2.0918

0.5622

0.4533

(RR) 1.1125

0.8382

1.4765

Charco dam

66

21 (31.82%)

(OR) 0.3234

0.1773

0.5899

14.1528

0.0001

(RR) 0.6004

0.4704

0.7664

Vegetation

Sparse/Open woodland

48

13 (27.08%)

(OR) 3.6683

1.8235

7.3792

14.3388

0.0001

Dense/Closed Miombo Forest

189

109 (57.67%)

(RR) 1.7227

1.3556

2.1891

Proximity to Mikumi

Close (0-10 Km)

113

53 (46.9%)

(OR) 0.7041

0.422

1.1748

1.8091

0.1786

Far (> 20 Km)

124

69 (55.65%)

(RR) 0.8353

0.6425

1.0861

Proximity to tourist tracks

Close (0-10 Km)

70

24 (34.29%)

(OR) 0.3673

0.2053

0.6573

11.7537

0.0006

Far (> 20 Km)

167

98 (58.68%)

(RR) 0.6287

0.4908

0.8054

 

n - counts; % - percent; CI - confidence intervals; χ2- Chi-square; OR - odds ratio; RR - risk ratio; F - Fishers exact test; Y - Yates corrected Chi-square.

Note: A total of 237 cattle were analysed based on risk factors. Counts and percentage of animals positive in each category are shown above. Odds ratios, risk ratios and chi-square show significance of each factor in relation to the occurrence of infection.