Table 3: Correlation of pain sites, pain severity, and pain-related disability with number of current pain treatments.

Opioid usea Non-opioid pharmacologic useb Non-pharmacologic usec
#Pain sites 0.31** 0.32** 0.24**
Pain severity 0.37** 0.22* 0.01
Pain-related disability 0.51** 0.18* 0.14

aIncludes codeine, fentanyl patch, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, propoxyphene, and tramadol; bIncludes over the counter treatments (acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories); clonidine, corticosteroids, cox-2 inhibitors, gabapentin, lidocaine patch, topiramate, antidepressants, pregabalin, and herbal supplements.; cIncludes psychotherapy, counseling, relaxation therapy, behavioral therapy, group therapy, stress management, behavioral management, and biofeedback,surgeries, nerve blocks, corticosteroid injections, spinal cord stimulators, chemical sympathectomy, and radiofrequency ablation sympathectomy; *p ≤ 0.05; **p < 0.001; #Number.