Table 1: Summary of select current and prospective technologies for bone grafting applications.

Materials Living bone (e.g., autograft)
Non-living bone (e.g., allograft)
- Natural polymer (e.g., collagen, chitosan, alginate)
- Synthetic polymer (e.g., polycaprolactone triol)
- Bioactive ceramic (e.g., tricalcium phosphate)
- Bioactive glass
- Hydrogels
- Metals (e.g., steel, gold, titanium)
Cells Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
Induced pluripotent stem cells
Biologics Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)
Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, OP1)
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP)