Table 2: Nutrients intake levels of the study population (N = 450).

 

 

RNI

Controls

(n = 150)

Subclinical Atherosclerosis

(n = 150)

Clinical Atherosclerosis

(n = 150)

p

Energy (Kcal)

2550♂ 2110♀ (19-59)

2380♂ 1900♀ (60-74)

2100♂ 1810♀ (75 +)

1864.4 49.9*

1533.6 50.8

1653.7 49.7

< 0.05

Unadjusted carbohydrate (gm)

 

212.9 5.9

191.5 5.6

200.7 5.3

< 0.05

Energy-adjusted carbohydrate (gm)

 

187.8 2.0

200.2 2.1

197.2 2.1

< 0.05

% of energy from carbohydrates

55%

45.8 0.4

51.2 0.6*

49.7 0.5

< 0.05

Unadjusted total fat (gm)

 

82.3 2.3*

63.0 2.6

69.4 2.5

< 0.05

Energy-adjusted fat (gm)

 

69.6 0.9

65.0 0.8

65.7 0.8

< 0.05

% of energy from fat

30%

40.3 0.5

36.0 0.5

37.1 0.4

< 0.05

Unadjusted protein (gm)

 

65.9 2.2*

57.3 1.9

63.2 2.0

< 0.05

Energy-adjusted protein (gm)

 

55.2 0.8

59.3 0.7*

60.6 0.6

< 0.05

% of energy from protein

15%

13.9 0.2

15.1 0.2*

15.2 0.1

< 0.05

Unadjusted SFA (gm)

 

23.9 0.8*

21.1 0.8

23.1 0.8

< 0.05

Energy-adjusted SFA (gm)

 

19.4 0.4

21.3 0.3*

21.5 0.4

< 0.05

% of energy from SFA

10%

12.7 0.2

13.8 0.2*

13.9 0.2

< 0.05

Unadjusted MUFA (gm)

 

25.7 0.8*

19.8 0.8

22.8 0.9

< 0.05

Energy-adjusted MUFA (gm)

 

21.4 0.3*

20.5 0.3

21.7 0.3

< 0.05

% of energy from MUFA

10%

13.8 0.2*

12.6 0.2

13.4 0.2

< 0.05

Unadjusted PUFA (gm)

 

25.6 0.7

15.9 0.8

16.2 0.7

< 0.05

Energy-adjusted PUFA (gm)

 

21.5 0.5

16.1 0.4

14.8 0.3

< 0.05

% of energy from PUFA

10%

14.0 0.3

9.8 0.3

9.5 0.2

< 0.05

Cholesterol (mg)

200

211.4 12.9*

172.1 10.8

195.3 8.9

< 0.05

Fiber (gm)

18

18.1 0.5

14.6 0.5

15.4 0.5

< 0.05

Vitamin D (μg)

10 (19-50 year)

15 (50 + year)

7.6 0.4

7.6 0.4

7.5 0.2

NS

Vitamin E (mg)

20

9.48 0.3

6.98 0.3

8.0 0.4

< 0.05

Vitamin C (mg)

40

34.1 1.3

40.6 1.8*

45.2 1.6

< 0.05

Vitamin B12 (μg)

1.5

1.38 0.07

1.31 0.05

1.12 0.05

NS

Folic acid (μg)

200

268.4 8.7

241.0 7.5

228.3 7.8

< 0.05

β-carotene (μg)

NA

5050.1 264.9*

5720.3 307.6

7530.4 356.5

< 0.05

Calcium (mg)

1000 (19-50yr)

1200 (50 + yr)

780.7 27.1

693.6 24.8

685.4 19.6

< 0.05

Selenium (μg)

75 ♂

60 ♀

40.5 1.7*

35.7 1.4

40.96 1.4

< 0.05

Zinc (mg)

9.5 ♂

7 ♀

8.39 0.3*

7.33 0.3

8.03 0.3

< 0.05

Copper (μg)

1.2

1.54 0.1*

1.32 0.0

1.45 0.0

< 0.05

 

Numeric data are presented as mean SEM. Categorical data were compared by χ2 test; continuous variables were compared by ANOVA test for normally distributed parameters or

 

Kruskall-Wallis test for non-normally distributed parameter with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. MUFA: Monounsaturated Fatty Acid, NA: Not Available, NS: Not Significant,

 

PUFA: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, RNI: Reference Nutrient Intake, SFA: Saturated Fatty Acid. *p < 0.05 controls vs. subclinical atherosclerosis group,

 

p < 0.05 controls vs. clinical atherosclerosis group, p < 0.05 subclinical atherosclerosis vs. clinical atherosclerosis group.