Table 1: Anticancer activity of wogonin against various cancers.

Tumor type Cell lines Mechanism Ref
Leukemia HL-60 Activation of caspase 3, H2AX phosphorylation, cleavage of PARP [101,102]
B-type human leukemia NALM-6 VEGF, c-Myc, reduced production of NF-kB [103]
Multiple myeloma 8226 Decrease in ABCG2 protein, suppression of Akt1 activity [104,105]
Hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 Decrease in Bcl-2 protein lead to increase in Bax and pro-caspase-3 activity [106]
Hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 production of ROS, ER stress [106]
Hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 reduced production of Nrf2 [106]
Colorectal cancer SMMC-7721 Reduced activity of PI3K/AKT, increasing of Bax protein, Bcl-2↓, caspase-3↑, p21 [106]
Colorectal cancer HCT116 HIF-1α↓, PI3K/AKT↓ [107]
Colorectal cancer HCT116 G1 arrest, deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway [60]
Colorectal cancer HepG2, Bel7402 Reduced production of Cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK4/6, Bcl-2 and MMP2, Increased cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 [108]
Breast cancer HT-29 NF-κB, Nrf2, AKT [109,110]
Breast cancer MCF-7 Decrease in PI3K/AKT activity [109,111]
Glioma U87-MG, U343-MG, U373, T98G, and MCF-10A AMPK, p53 [112]
Lung cancer A549 IL-6/STAT3 [112]
Cervical cancer HPV-16 E6↓, E7↓ [113]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW076/039 GSK-3β↓, ΔNp63↓ [85]
Osteosarcoma U-2 OS ER stress [76]