Table 1: Overview of key findings linking anxiety to osteoarthritis outcomes over the past 15 years.

Authors Study approach Study approach
Ali et al. [62] Examined 114 knee arthroplasty cases with OA using the HADS 23/55 dissatisfied patients suffered from anxiety;6/59 patients in satisfied group were anxious at 2-7 years; pain was lower in satisfied group
Axford et al. [9] 54 cases with lower limb OA were studied using the HADS Anxiety is common in OA and is related to pain and disability
Badura-Brzoza et al. [29] Longitudinal study of 103 cases undergoing hip replacement surgery for primary OA using HADS Total hip replacement outcomes are influenced by trait anxiety
Badel et al. [70] 16 patients with temporoandibular joint OA 20 controls using the STAI Patients with chronic pain had high anxiety levels before treatment
Chen et al. [51] Cross sectional study of 192 out patients Key predictors of sleep were high anxiety levels
Creamer et al. [15] Cross-sectional study of 69 knee OA cases using STAI Disability was associated with anxiety as measured on the STAI
Duivenvorden et al. [57] 286 arthroplasty candidates with OA were examined using the HADS Anxiety decreased after surgery but those with pre-operative anxiety had worse 3 and 12 month outcomes and less overall satisfaction than non-anxious patients
Hanusch et al. [65] Examined 100 knee OA cases post-surgery with HADS Anxiety was associated with a worse knee outcome score at one year post arthroplasty
Hernandez et al. [52] Systematic review of 37 studies relating determinants of arthroplasty outcomes to baseline measures Anxiety influences post op. pain
Hirshman et al. [69] 104 knee OA cases undergoing surgery were studied using STAI Patients with higher state and trait anxiety had worse function before and after surgery
Hodkinson et al. [68] Examined aesthetic discomfort in172 hand OA cases using the HADS Those with a high disease burden and anxiety had higher levels of aesthetic discomfort
Jacobs et al. [53] 1020 knee OA surgeries followed for 2 years 41.9% of less severe cases, reported anxiety, and were more dissatisfied than more severe cases
Liddle et al. [61] Examined results revision surgery for OA in 3862 cases Anxiety affected patient reported outcomes negatively
McHugh et al. [66] 202 OA cases awaiting and undergoing surgery were studied using the HADS Anxiety influenced 6 month recovery even though this was reduced after surgery in general
Montin et al. [24] Longitudinal study hip OA cases before + after surgery Pre-operative trait anxiety predicted health quality of life before and after surgery using the STAI
Salmon et al. [39] Longitudinal study of 102 cases undergoing hip replacement surgery using PMS Recovery at follow-up was slower in those with greater anxiety
Scopaz et al. [49] 182 cases with knee OA completed the BAI Higher anxiety scores rates were associated with worse function scores
Sinikallio et al. [19] Examined 111 cases of OA, 35-75 years age with knee OA using the BAI Negative emotions impact pain and disability
Smith & Zautra [18] 88 females with OA were studied using the MHI Anxiety was related to elevations in current and future pain at twice the rate for depression
Tallon D [50] 113 knee OA cases were interviewed Anxiety about their condition caused many to be distressed

Abbreviations: BAI: Beck Anxiety Inventory, HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, MHI: Mental Health Inventory, PMS: Profile Mood States, STAI: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory