Table 2: Demographic, clinical and immunological/neurological characteristics of corticosteroid-naive SLE patients with vs. without fatigue.

 

Variables

Fatigue, yes

Fatigue, no

p

(n = 8)

(n = 35)

Demographics

Age, years

31.4 (8.7)

28.1 (8.6)

0.295

Female

8/8 (100%)

34/35 (97/1%)

0.814

Education, years

13.5 (2.1)

13.4 (1.9)

0.948

Clinical characteristics

Disease duration, months

17.1 (20.6)

28.2 (44.2)

0.407

Time since SLE diagnosisa, months

0.0 (0.0)

3.9 (20.2)

0.114

SLEDAI-2K

14.0 (6.5)

11.4 (5.7)

0.332

Perfomance Statusb

0.9 (0.8)

0.3 (0.5)

0.032c

Pain, VAS, mm

42.1 (21.4)

27.7 (24.0)

0.108

Sleep disturbanced

1.5 (2.0)

0.7 (1.1)

0.140

POMS-Anxiety

21.3 (8.3)

12.4 (5.8)

0.005c

POMS-depression

23.8 (12.0)

11.7 (8.4)

0.009c

Immunological/neurological markers

Anti-DNA antibody, IU/ml, median (IQR)

32.5 (9.0 - 79.5)

102.0 (13.0 - 268.0)

0.225

CH50, U/ml, median (IQR)

12.3 (10.0 - 29.5)

24.6 (12.6 - 33.1)

0.225

Antiphospholipid antibody, positivee

2/8 (25.0%)

12/35 (34.3%)

0.478

Interleukin-6, pg/ml (serum), median (IQR)

2.3 (0.6 - 5.2)

3.6 (0.9 - 7.0)

0.471

Interleukin-6, pg/ml (CSF), median (IQR)

2.46 (1.2 - 6.95)

7.9 (2.8 - 11.0)

0.072

Interleukin-8, pg/ml (serum), median (IQR)

13.8 (0.0 - 50.2)

14.4 (0.0 - 62.9)

0.852

Interleukin-8, pg/ml (CSF), median (IQR)

41.5 (22.7 - 130.6)

78.0 (35.7 - 129.5)

0.537

Interferon-α, IU/l (serum), median (IQR)

0.0 (0.0 - 27.4)

0.0 (0.0 - 1.0)

0.210

Interferon-α, IU/l (CSF), median (IQR)

0.0 (0.0 - 15.5)

0.0 (0.0 - 3.0)

0.236

IgG index, positive (normal < 0.70)

0/6 (0.0%)

6/31 (19.4%)

0.561

Brain MRI, abnormalf

2/8 (25.0%)

4/33 (12.1%)

0.331

Electroencephalogram, abnormal

4/8 (50.0%)

14/33 (42.4%)

0.500

 

Data are number/number assessed (%), mean (standard deviation: SD), or otherwise stated.

P values were determined by Fisher's exact test or Mann - Whitney U-test.

aTime between being diagnosed with SLE based on ACR criteria (1997) for the first time and assessment.

bDetermined using Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group criteria

cSignificant variables

dTotal scores from the three sleep-related items in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items

eAntiphospholipid antibodies include anticardiolipin-b2-glycoprotein-I complex and lupus anticoaglant.

fAll detected abnormalities consisted of small focal lesions ( < 10 mm) in the white matter.

VAS = Visual Analog Scale

SLEDAI-2K = Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000

POMS = Profile of Mood State

IQR = Interquartile Range

CSF = Cerebrospinal Fluid