Table 1: New drugs for systemic lupus erythematosus tested in clinical trials (APRIL: A proliferation-inducing ligand; BLyS: B-lymphocyte-stimulator protein; ICOS: Inducible costimulator; JAK: Janus kinase; mAb: Monoclonal antibody).

Drug Mechanism of action
Blisibimob Inhibition of B lymphocytes (BLyS blocking)
Abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) T lymphocyte costimulation blocking (CD28/B7 interaction)
AMG 577 T lymphocyte costimulation blocking (by ICOS inhibition)
AMG 811 IFN-γ activity blocking (anti-IFN-γ mAb)
Anakinra Cytokine blockade, human recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist
Anifrolumab IFN- α activity blocking (anti-IFN-α receptor mAb)
Atacicept Inhibition of B lymphocytes (BLyS-APRIL blocking)
CDP 7657 Blockade of T cell co-stimulation (CD40L)
Epratuzumab Inhibition of B lymphocytes (anti-CD22 mAb)
Glutathione Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine)
IFNa Kinoid IFN-α vaccine
JAK 116439 T lymphocyte costimulation blocking (by JAK inhibition)
Laquinomod Immunomodulatory agent (synthetic tolerogen)
Lupizor Immunomodulatory agent (synthetic tolerogen)
MEDI-570 T lymphocyte costimulation blocking (by ICOS inhibition)
NNC 0152 IFN-α activity blocking (anti-IFN-╬▒ mAb)
Ocrelizumab Inhibition of B lymphocytes (anti-CD20 mAb)
Rapamycin mTOR inhibition
Rituximab Inhibition of B lymphocytes (anti-CD20 mAb)
Rontalizumab IFN-α activity blocking (anti-IFN-α mAb)
Sifalimumab IFN-α activity blocking (anti-IFN-α mAb)
Sirukumab Cytokine blockade (anti-IL-6 receptor mAb)
SM 101 Fcγ receptor modulation
Tabalumab Inhibition of B lymphocytes (BLyS blocking)
Tocilizumab Cytokine blockade (anti-IL-6 receptor mAb)
Vitamin D Immunomodulatory agent