Table 1: Inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Criteria To include To exclude

Study designs

All quantitative study designs

Case Report

Randomized Controlled Trials

Crossover Trials

Clinical Trial (Not Randomized)

Cohort Systematic Review


Conference Proceedings

Opinion Pieces

Conference Proceedings

Population characteristics

Human subjects

Adult ( ≥ 18 yrs) diagnosed with:

• HTN (BP > 130/mmHg)

• OSA (mild OSA or greater, AHI > 5)

All races/ethnicities

Male & Female

Non-human subjects

Persons < 18-years-old

Pregnant Women

Populations with CKD, poorly controlled DM

HF, MI, unstable angina, stroke


Evening administration of antihypertensive medication (6:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight) vs.morning administration of antihypertensive medication (6:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon) or vs. placebo groups

Morning only or non-time specific medication administration.

Chronotherapy for conditions other than HTN.

Outcomes assessed

Primary outcome:

Change from baseline 24-hour mean SBP and DBP measured by:

• Office BP measurement OR

• Ambulatory BP monitoring OR

• Asleep BP measurement

• Dipping pattern Characterization

• CV morbidity and mortality

Secondary outcome:

• Adverse drug events

• OSA occurrence (AHI or similar scoring system)

Year Performed No start date limitation - January 19, 2018

*HTN: Hypertension; OSA: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; CKD: Chronic Kidney Disease; DM: Diabetes Mellitus; HF: Heart Failure; MI: Myocardial Infarction; SBP: Systolic BP; DBP: Diastolic BP; BP: Blood Pressure; CV: Cardiovascuar; OSA: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; AHI: Apnea-Hypopnea Index.