Table 1: Summary of risks [2-7].

Obstetric Miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labour, premature rupture of membranes, death
Haematological Bleeding, venous thromboembolism
Urological Urinary incontinence, sepsis, urine retention, ureteric obstruction, renal failure
Gastrointestinal Constipation, bowel obstruction and necrosis
Fetal Intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios, malpresentation
Associated with manual replacement Preterm labour, abruption, uterine rupture, emergency caesarean section, hysterectomy