Intravenous Infusion of Ginsenoside Rb1 Ameliorates Compressive Spinal Cord Injury through Upregulation of Bcl-xL and VEGF
Pengxiang Zhu, Ryuji Hata, Kimihiko Nakata, Fang Cao, Keiichi Samukawa, Hiroko Fujita and Masahiro Sakanaka
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 15, 2015
Red ginseng root (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used clinically by many Asian people for thousands of years without any detrimental effects. Subsequent studies that focused on gRb1-induced expression of gene products responsible for neuronal death or survival revealed that gRb1 upregulated the expression of not only Bcl-XL, but also a potent angiogenic and neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 7 days after SCI. Ginsenoside Rb1 (gRb1), with putative anti-apoptotic, angiogenic and neurotrophic actions, is a candidate agent for the treatment of patients with acut...
Cortical Diffusion Restriction as the Single Abnormality on MRI in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Johnny Samijn, Alisha Godschalk, Rezan Demir and Esther Brusse
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 12, 2015
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia and myoclonus. MRI is an important tool in discriminating CJD from other dementias. Among mimics of CJD are rapidly evolving Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia and paraneoplastic or immune-mediated limbic encephalitis. A CJD diagnosis can be missed and strong clinical suspicion is not always confirmed on autopsy. Typical imaging findings are white matter abnormalities in the thalamus, the striatum and progressive atrophy....
Basis and Argument into the Work
Roberto Rodrigues, George Perry and Robert Petersen
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 12, 2015
This synopsis is a brief report about the conclusions in which we have engaged from considering that Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment and aging could progress with analogous molecular signaling, with no frontiers between their phenotypes. We have also proposed that chronic depression, with or no anxiety and/or stress comorbidindication may interact with these AD manifestations - already product of genomic vulnerability - at any stage of the disease. A known example may bemutant short alleles on the depression genes corresponding to the synthesis of a series of neurotransmitter transpo...
Caspase Cleaved Tau in Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapeutic Target Realized
Troy T. Rohn
Article Type: Hypothesis | First Published: January 12, 2015
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an array of symptoms affecting memory and cognition. Some common symptoms of AD include memory loss that disrupts daily life, challenges in planning or solving problems, confusion with time or place, and changes in mood and personality. Central dogma to the etiology of AD is the beta-amyloid cascade, which stipulates that beta-amyloid in oligomeric forms represents the earliest step in a cascade eventually leading to the formation of senile plaques and neurofirillary tangles (NFTs) and neurodegeneration....
Analyze the Levels of Immunoglobulins IgG and IgM in Elderly and Youngs
Samia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellao Tavares, Wilame de Lima Bravo Junior and Jessica Lissandra Alves Leite
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2015
The aging process is complex and affects a variety of functions, including lower defense capability of the immune system. The immune activity, as most of physiological functions, decreases with age. The principal alterations in humoral immune response are associated with concentration of immunoglobulins, amount and activity of B cells and also the changes in the affinity of the antibodies. The current study aimed to analyze the levels of IgG and IgM antibodies of elderly and young people and to investigate the statistical difference between the groups. The research was a descriptive study and ...
Atrial Fibrillation Triggered by Theophylline: a Case Report Treated with 'Pill in the Pocket'
Ekrem Sahan and Suzan Sahan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 04, 2015
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and the prevalence of AF increases with age. Ageing, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart diseases, congenital heart defects, thyroid dysfunctions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drugs and alcohol are associated with atrial fibrilliation. New-onset AF can be converted to sinus rhythm. 'Pill in the Pocket' administration can be effective in new-onset AF. Herein, we present a new-onset AF was triggered by drug (theophylline) and converted with oral propafenone instead of el...
Effect of Alogliptin, a DPP-4 Inhibitor, on Markers of Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Yuzuru Kishitani, Hideyuki Okuda, Daisuke Kinoshita, Kanyun Hata and Toshihiko Kawasaki
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Background: DPP-4 inhibitor has been shown to improve not only blood glucose levels but also dyslipidemia, but the effect remains controversial. Further, there are few reports regarding the influence on Apo B, Apo A-1 and Apo B/Apo A-1 in alogliptin. Objective: Using the alogliptin, we focused on Apo B and Apo A-1, in addition to LDL-C, HDL-C and TG, and investigated the effect of alogliptin on markers predicting cardiovascular events, such as Apo B/Apo A-1 and LDL-C/Apo B....
Correlations of OSA Severity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Jiang Xiao-zhen, Xi Feng, Chen Rui-Hua, Jiang Quan and Zou Yu-Feng
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Aim: To determine whether carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) was elevated in diabetic patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), and correlations of OSA severity with IMT and other clinical characteristics. Materials and methods: The study subjects were composed of 36 diabetic patients with OSA (group A), and 34 patients without OSA (group B). In both groups, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, C-IMT and carotid resistance index (C-RI) were assessed, and results of sleep study were collected to investigate possible correlations with IMT and...
Conservative Management of Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm Rupture with Rectal Fistula after Laparoscopic Myomectomy and Review of the Literature
Gabbi L, Petrocelli F, Di Domenico S, Ferrero S and RemorgidaV
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 17, 2014
Late uterine hemorrhage caused by uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening complication after uterine surgery. The association of uterine pseudoanerysm rupture causing rectal fistula has not been reported in literature as well as its management. Herein we report a case of massive late uterine bleeding and rectal bleeding after laparoscopic myomectomy. A 43 year old Caucasian nulliparous woman underwent laparoscopic excision of 8 cm posterior intramural myoma. One month later she developed acute abdominal pain and proctorrhagia....
The Importance of Stimulation Cycle in Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Drug-Resistant Epilepsies- Our Experience and Literature Review
Nicola Montano, Filomena Fuggetta, Fabio Papacci, Rina Di Bonaventura, Mario Meglio and Gabriella Colicchio
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 17, 2014
The impact of stimulation cycle on the outcome of patients submitted to Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS) has been only marginally investigated in the literature. Nonetheless this is an important factor in term of tolerability of side effects, duration of generator and costs of therapy. Here the role of this parameter was evaluated on 21 patients who underwent to VNS implant at our Institution from January 1994 to February 2011 and responded to VNS (they reported a stable decrease of seizure number at least of 50%). We studied 3 stimulation cycles....