Role of Infections in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis- A Study from South India
Poovazhagi Varadarajan and Saradha suresh
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 06, 2014
Cerebral edema is the commonest cause of mortality in DKA worldwide. Infections are known to precipitate new onset DKA, they also adversely affect the outcome of DKA in children from developing countries. Infections are major contributory factors for DKA in children with established diabetes mellitus (DM) along with poor compliance to therapy. This study among 118 episodes of DKA from a pediatric tertiary care Institute has identifid infections as a signifiant risk factor for severe metabolic derangements, complications and poor outcome in children with DKA. Infections were signifiantly associ...
The Role of Netrin-1 in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy
Wenyi Wu and Luosheng Tang
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 06, 2014
Netrin-1 which belongs to axon guidance cue is necessary for neural and vascular development. It involves in regulating axon guidance for attraction or repulsion and it has a dual function in endothelial tip cell migration during angiogenesis. Many evidences have proved that netrin-1 plays an important role in angiogenesis, cancer progression and inflmmation disease. Here we provide a comprehensive review on the role of netrin-1 in retinal and angiogenesis developments. What's more, some associated signaling pathways in diabetic retinopathy are also discussed. Overall, the current available da...
Does GABA Metabolism Play any Specific Role in the Stimulation of Insulin Secretion in Β-Cells?
J. Pizarro-Delgado and J. Tamarit-Rodriguez
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: November 05, 2014
It was recognized quite a few years ago that islet GABA metabolism might be implicated in the stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Since then, some studies have been addressed to investigate how GABA release by β-cells might exert a negative autocrine control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a parallel paracrine inhibition of glucagon release trough the activation of GABAB and GABA A receptors, respectively. More recently, it has been shown that some nutrient secretagogues like glucose and α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) suppress islet GABA release simultaneously to th...
Recent Advances in Insulin Therapy for Diabetes
Aiman Ahmad, Iekhsan Othman, Anuar Zaini Md Zain and Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 27, 2014
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting a great number of the world's population. Insulin therapy for diabetes is most commonly delivered via subcutaneous injections, up to four times a day. Long-term insulin therapy, compounded by the invasive nature of its administration, has caused problems with patient compliance, ultimately inflencing patient outcomes. Extensive research has been carried out to date, to explore possible improvements to insulin therapy for diabetic patients, with some new products already available and FDA-approved. This review aims to highlight the new discoverie...
Energy Drink Ingredients and their Effect on Endothelial Function: A Review
John P. Higgins and Brandon L. Ortiz
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 31, 2014
It is an age-old idea to try to boost one's performance in order to achieve an elusive goal or conquer an obstacle. Many energy products, especially energy drinks (ED) are now marketed to this need, and examples include Red Bulls' 'Gives You Wings', as well as Monster Energy's 'Unleash the Beast' advertising campaigns.
In the light of ED consumption recently being associated with high risk behaviors, unhealthy habits, and some deaths in adolescents and young adults, especially when consumed while exercising, the Food and Drug Agency and the scientific community is now asking for more evidenc...
A Rare Manifestation of Organophosphorus Poisoning: Hypothermia with Cardiotoxicity
Valliappan Muthu, Sahajal Dhooria and Inderpaul Singh Sehgal
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 30, 2014
Organophosphorus pesticides related self-harm is afairly common clinical entity responsible for over two thirds of pesticide related deaths in the rural areas of developing countries. Organophosphates by their action at muscarinic and nicotinic receptors can have a myriad of presenting symptoms. Here we describe a fatal case of phorate (organophosphorus) toxicity manifesting with hypothermia and cardiotoxicity....
Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 Induction during Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: A Rat Model of LAD Occlusion
D. Olga McDaniel, Lance Majors, Taolin Fang, Feng Zhang and Larry S. McDaniel
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 29, 2014
The emerging role of the innate immune response in organ transplantation heightens the significance of molecular markers released from the donor organ due to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) during organ procurement. These molecules are prime activators of innate immunity. Allograft inflmmatory factor-1 (AIF- 1) has been implicated in the regulation of inflmmation and organ rejection. To verify expression level of AIF-1 in cardiac tissues, we developed a rat model of IRI, in which the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded to generate ischemia in the left ventricle (LV) of the hea...
Prevalence of Hypertension and its Relationship with Adiposity among Rural Elderly Population in India
Nimmathota Arlappa, Avula Laxmmaiah, Nagalla Balakrishna, Rachakula Harikumar, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao and GNV Brahmam
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 02, 2014
Background: The world has witnessed the demographic transition in which there is increased proportion of elderly (≥ 60 years) population. This increased longevity is associated with the burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of hypertension and its relationship with adiposity among the elderly in rural India.
Subjects and methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out among 3133 elderly (Men: 1677; Women: 1456). Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were recorded on selected subjects.
Results: The ove...
Cardiology and the New Decade
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 29, 2014
Greetings to all readers as we move in to the era of science and technology. Let us hope to witness several exciting developments in the field of cardiology that would pave way to the cure of many cardiological disorders in this new era. This year the International Journal of Clinical Cardiology is debuting in field of open access. We hope to bring to you some of scientific excitements. There had been much progress in the field of Heart Transplantation Surgery. Doctors and Researcher from all across the world has summarized these developments and has challenged us to meet the future scenario, ...
Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Neuromyelitis Optica
Lei Zhang, Yaqing Shu, Shaoyang Sun, Yinyao Lin, Yanqiang Wang, Bingjun Zhang and Xuejiao Men
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 30, 2014
Background and purpose: Homocysteine has been implicated in many kinds of neurologic diseases by inducing oxidative injury which is considered one of the pathogenic mechanisms of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any relationship between plasma homocysteine and clinical features of NMO patients.
Methods: We measured plasma homocysteine in 66 patients with NMO and 66 controls.
Results: The patients with NMO had significantly higher homocysteine level than that of healthy control (P<0.001). The average homocysteine level of patients with ...