Impact of New Genome Editing Tools on iPS Cell Based Therapies
Jianbo Wu and Radbod Darabi
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 14, 2014
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) have unique differentiation and self- renewal potential which makes them a potential candidate for cell therapy in degenerative disorders. However, the limitation of deriving ES cells from embryos and their immune-incompatibility hinder their clinical applications. Fortunately, by introduction of somatic cell reprogramming technology into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), the limitations of ES cells have been circumvented. Therefore iPS cells have been considered as a promising cell source for clinical application in regenerative medicine....
Patients Treated with Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation have Long-Term Renal Function Similar to Patients without Atrial Fibrillation
David L. Johnson, John D. Day, Brian G. Crandall, J. Peter Weiss, Heidi T. May, Tami L. Bair, Jeffrey S. Osborn, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Joseph B. Muhlestein, Donald L. Lappe and T. Jared Bunch
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been reported to worsen renal function over time. Renal dysfunction in the setting of AF decreases response to rhythm control approaches and increases risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aggressive rhythm control approaches, such as catheter ablation, may interrupt this cycle and impact renal function favorably over time. Methods: Patients were enrolled from the large ongoing prospective Intermountain Cardiovascular Health Study....
Use of Statins in an Australian Elderly Population
Svetla Gadzhanova, Elizabeth Roughead and Jenni Ilomaki
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 28, 2014
Background: Statins are the fist drug choice for lowering high cholesterol and are one of the most widely used classes of medicines in Australia. Although well tolerated, some adverse effects are dose and potency dependent to which older people are particularly susceptible. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the use of statins in elderly Australians, and how usage had changed over time with respect to dose and potency of statin prescribed....
Necrotizing Pancreatitis Causing Acute Focal Pericarditis
William F McIntyre, Andres Enriquez, Kevin Michael and Adrian Baranchuk
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 15, 2014
We describe the case of a 39-year old man with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A twelve-lead electrocardiogram (A) showed signs of pericarditis and a computed tomography of the abdomen showed focal pericardial effusion, confirming the diagnosis....
A Case Report of Immediate Extubation Post Primary PCI in STEMI
Sharan Rufus Ponniah, Pradeepto Ghosh, Nagapradeep Nagajothi, Srinivasa Satti, Kavitha Nidamanuri and Baskar Rajala
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 16, 2014
We report a case of immediate extubation following primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The optimal timing of extubation following revascularization in STEMI is unclear. Early extubation in this scenario, if feasible has a mortality benefit. Duration of mechanical ventilation following STEMI is a strong predictor of mortality. In this case, we report a scenario of immediate extubation following revascularization, which we believe contributed to the patient's mortality benefit. We present this case to emphasize the importance of early withdrawa...
Cockroach Allergy, Respiratory Allergic Diseases and Its Immunotherapy
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2014
Cockroach allergen-derived proteases play a direct role on airway epithelial as well as dendritic cells thru activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2. Cockroach-derived proteases lead to an increased penetration of cockroach allergen thru disturbing airway epithelial integrity, which can activate innate immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells) via binding to Toll-like receptor or C-type lectin receptors. The activated dendritic cells promote the adaptive immune system cells to a Th2 cell response and subsequently increase risk of sensitization....
Polarization of Human THP-1 Macrophages: Link between Adenosine Receptors, Inflammation and Lipid Accumulation
Michael J. Littlefild, Isaac Teboul, Iryna Voloshyna and Allison B. Reiss
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 08, 2014
Rationale: Macrophages are key players in inflammation and atherosclerosis. They express surface receptors of different subtypes for the endogenous autocoid adenosine. Macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions attain two clear-cut functional phenotypes M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (immunosuppressive). This study examines the relative expression of adenosine receptors and proteins involved in cholesterol transport in THP-1 human macrophages upon differentiation into M1 and M2 subtypes....
Recurrent Ischemic Strokes as the First Manifestation of A Pancreatic Cancer
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 03, 2015
A 56-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital with acute headache and a speech disorder characterized by mild aphasia and dysarthria. She had a history of arterial hypertension and nicotism for several years. Neurological evaluation at admission revealed mild motor aphasia and dysarthria (NIHSS: 2). Brain computed tomography (CT) showed two hypodense lesions, in the lef temporal and the right frontal lobes respectively. Results of laboratory tests revealed elevated values of serum lactate dehydrogenase (753 UI/l), gammaglutamyltransferase (195UI/l), alanin...
Monitoring of the Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve during Mediastinoscopy is Feasible and Safe
Wolfram Karenovics, Sebastien Guigard, Besa Zenelaj, Marc Licker and Frederic Triponez
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 29, 2014
Objective: Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) palsy is a well known complication of cervical mediastinoscopy and is not infrequent if specifically looked for. Electro-physiological monitoring of the RLN is common practice in thyroid surgery and has greatly improved outcomes. We applied the same technique during cervical video-mediastinoscopy. Patients and methods: Between October 2012 and October 2013 patients undergoing mediastinoscopy were enrolled prospectively for intra-operative monitoring of the left RLN. A standardized protocol for the use of the neuromonitor was followed....
Relationship of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups with Complex Diseases
Carlos G Urzua-Traslavina, Maria G Moreno-Trevino, Denisse A Martinez-Trevino, Hugo A Barrera-Saldana and Rafael BR Leon-Cachon
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 16, 2014
Mitochondria are responsible for energy production in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Apart from their major role in metabolism, mitochondria are involved in many other cellular processes. A new paradigm is needed to understand aging, aging-related illnesses, and complex diseases. Because of the long co-evolution of mitochondria with the cells, subtle variations in the function of these organelles could influence many organ systems. Understanding the extent of this influence will shed light on the pathophysiology of some of these diseases. This review will examine the history of mito...