ClinMed International Library

The ClinMed International Library is a repository and an open access publisher for medical research that covers a wide range of areas in Clinical Medicine. ClinMed serves as a global platform for medical practitioners and research scholars to foster their learning and professional acumen through an extensive portfolio of research articles and publications that can be accessed without any restrictions.

Dedicated to clinical medical research, we now publish over 70 quality peer-reviewed journals making all the articles freely accessible. The manuscripts submitted to ClinMed will be processed through standard parameters and international peer review systems. This has enabled us to establish new milestones in the global research arena in terms of cogency and integrity, and to disseminate highly credible and accredited research content for researchers, scholars, and practitioners across the globe.

We ensure that all researchers and authors publishing their papers with us retain copyrights, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License that permits the unrestricted use and re-use of the content with proper citation.



  Last Updated: September 22, 2021

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All articles are fully peer reviewed, free to access and can be downloaded from our ClinMed archive.

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 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-567X/1510075

Prevalence of, and Factors Influencing First Line Antiretroviral Treatment Failure among Adult HIV Patients at Antiretroviral Treatment Clinic of Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, South Western, Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study, 2021

Gudisa Bereda and Gemechis Bereda

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 28, 2021

Antiretroviral treatment failure is defined as progression of disease and high risk of mortality after beginning of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. First-line ART failure has emerged as a growing concern. ART failure is a major challenge to HIV/AIDS management in resource-limited settings including Ethiopia where the diagnosis and management of ART failure is a key problem. Principal factors involving fist-line antiretroviral regimen failure include poor adherence to medication, younger a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510197

Reevaluation of Diagnostic Criteria for Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Collegiate Wrestlers: A Case Series and Review

James Geiselman, DC, MS, DACBN, CCSP, ICSC, CES, CNC, NREMT, EMT-P and R. Darin Thomas, DO, MS

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: August 09, 2021

Rhabdomyolysis is a common and potentially fatal condition encountered by athletic trainers, coaches, primary care physicians and sports medicine physicians. Benign, or physiological, Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (ER) may resemble Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and becomes clinically significant when accompanied by other morphologies including severe muscle pain and swelling, and myoglobinuria. ER is often characterized by a triad of symptoms including 1) Muscle pain, 2) Muscle swelling, and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-346X/1410128

Effectiveness of Topical Chemotherapy in Pigmented and Scamous Lesions of the Ocular Surface: Literature Review

Alejandra Lozano Bustillo, Mariel Eunice Amador-Rosa and Rocío Mitchell Banegas Erazo

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 31, 2021

The standard of care for the treatment of ocular surface lesions seems to have changed from surgery to topical chemotherapeutic agents as supplements to it or even as sole therapy, despite the scarcity of long-term studies in the published literature. A search in the academic search engines of PubMed, Google academic and Cochrene, of articles published in English language from the years 1997 to 2020 on chemotherapeutic management of ocular surface diseases. Topical or perilesional chemotherapy a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2378-3001/1410113

Small Fiber Neuropathy Associated COVID-19: A Common or Uncommon Complication?

Milena Luisa Schulze, Letícia Caroline Breis and Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves, MD, PhD

Article Type: Non-Systematic Review | First Published: August 05, 2021

The spectrum of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 range from anosmia and dysgeusia to myopathy and encephalitis. With the persistence of COVID-19 pandemic and the increase of infected subjects, new acute manifestations and sequels are being discovered. Lately, a new important neurological complication has been reported: Small Fiber Neuropathy (SFN). The existing literature reports cases of dysautonomia, orthostatic intolerance, and hyperesthesia manifestations, until the moment. Several ne...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410146

Oral Semaglutide: A Novel Oral Preparation of GLP-1 Receptor Agonist

Priya Mohan Babu and Vinay Eligar

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 07, 2021

The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous hormone produced by the L cells in the intestine. It is released in response to the intake of food and intestinal dilatation. It stimulates the pancreatic beta-cell to secrete insulin which is dependent upon ingestion of food. GLP-1 acts to slow down gastric motility and suppress appetite through the GLP-1 receptors in the satiety center. It is neutralized by the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme very quickly. Hence the endogenous GLP-1 ha...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-3634/1410145

Effect of Educational Intervention Programme on Self- Management Practices of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South-East, Nigeria

Christiana Nkiru Okafor, PhD, Pauline Ojinaka Ezenduka, PhD, Chinedu Charles Onyenekwe, PhD, Kenneth Umezulike Ani, BMR (PT), M.Sc, Chika Chioma H Odira, PhD, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, PhD and Vera Ijeoma Onyekaonwu, M.Sc

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2021

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that has great impact on health and affects quality of life of DM sufferers. Despite its chronic nature, DM is also a self managed disease that requires adequate knowledge of DM self management, in order for the sufferers to actively participate in their self care. The study was aimed at determining the effect of educational intervention programme on the selfmanagement practices of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in South East, Nigeria. A quasi ex...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510126

COVID-19 Pneumonia: Guiding the Decision to Intubate Based on Work of Breathing Assessment Independent of Oxygenation

Amin Nadeem, Philip Fanapour, Mylene Apigo, Sunyoung Kim, Sanish George, Muhammad Khan, Azib Shahid, Charmi Patel, Ria Carnate and Raúl J Gazmuri

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 04, 2021

In most patients, COVID-19 pneumonia initially causes significant hypoxemia but without substantial impairment of lung compliance that would increase the work of breathing (WOB). Once adequate oxygenation is established, a tool to determine WOB independent of oxygen needs can guide the decision to intubate for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). We monitored oxygen requirements and WOB in 10 patients admitted with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (radiographic evidence of extensive lung disease with...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2469-5866/1410038

Long-Term Survival (23 Years) in a 26-Year-old Male after Antineoplaston Therapy for a Progressive, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Case Report

Stanislaw R. Burzynski, Gregory S. Burzynski, Tomasz Janicki and Samuel Beenken

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 08, 2021

Individuals suffering from diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) face a dismal prognosis with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months, and a 2-year survival rate of 10%. Long-term survival is very rare. To date, radiotherapy remains the standard of care at diagnosis, but offers a survival benefit of approximately 3 months. Chemotherapy has not shown to be effective. There is no Standard of Care for progressive DIPG after radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this case report is t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2377-4630/1410123

Comparison of the Effects of Target-Controlled Propofol Infusion and General Anesthesia with Desflurane on Postoperative Cognitive Functions in Controlled Hypotensive Anesthesia

Ayse Altun Gezgel, Fatih Dogu Geyik, Yucel Yuce, Ibrahim Gezgel, Banu Cevik and Kemal Tolga Saracoglu

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: August 13, 2021

We evaluated anesthesia depth, cerebral oxygenation and postoperative cognitive functions with NIRS and BIS monitoring and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. We studied 60 patients with American Anesthesiologists Association (ASA) I-II, over 18 years of age, with a preoperative MMSE test score of 23 and above. Hemodynamic parameters, BIS and bilateral NIRS values were recorded. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) value was kept between 55-65 mmHg. MMSE test was repeated 1 hour before and 2...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4512/1710060

Supporting the Frontline Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Non-Clinicians and Lessons Learned

Bhavana K, MD, Puneet Khanna, MD and Abhishek Singh, MD

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 05, 2021

In a population of health care workers with a soaring level of burnout, this pandemic had the effect of rubbing salt to wound. The frontline workers were not only required to take this extra load, but their numbers had dwindled by illness, quarantine, and death. Though most of the focus during the pandemic has been related to clinical information, morbidity, mortality, and treatment strategies, there have been only a few reports highlighting the critical roles played by organizational leaders wh...

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New Issues

VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021

VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021

VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1

Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021

VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021

VOLUME 7, ISSUE 4

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021

Featured Articles

Clinical Characteristics of Suspected COVID-19 in Pediatric Patients

Heather Yerdon, BS, Lauren Mutter, MD, Rick Tivis, MPH, Trevor Olsen, PhD and Anna Suessman, DO

DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510121



A Neural Mobilization Treatment Strategy for Patients with Neurogenic Claudication Related to Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Prospective Case Series

Reid Gehring, PT, ScD, Joan Potter-Brunet, PT, DPT, Phillip Sizer, PT, PhD, Kerry Gilbert, PT, ScD and Jean-Michel Brismee, PT, ScD

DOI:10.23937/2469-5718/1510191



Spontaneous Proximal Tibiofibular Joint Ganglion Cyst as a Rare Cause of Acute Foot Drop: A Case Report

Nirguna Thalla, MD, MBA, W Daniel White, MD, J Taylor Mansfield, DO, Jason M Souza, MD and Matthew E Miller, MD

DOI:10.23937/2572-3243.1510095



Flow Related Aneurysm in Hemangioblastoma and Literature Review of Hemorrhagic Rate and Management Strategy

Choo Heng Tan, FRCS, Felicia HZ Chua, MBBS, MRCS and Peter Y wang, FRACS

DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710068


Featured Journals

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports Editor-in-chief: Prof. Wei Wang

International Journal of Surgery Research and Practice Editor-in-chief: Prof. Brian Richard Davis

International Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy Editor-in-chief: Prof. Faris Farassati

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology Editor-in-chief: Prof. Breijo-Marquez

Journal of Genetics and Genome Research Editor-in-chief: Prof. Ming Zhan

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews Editor-in-chief: Prof. Leslie Iffy

International Journal of Cancer and Clinical Research Editor-in-chief: Prof. Sulma I Mohammed

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research Editor-in-chief: Prof. Masayoshi Yamaguchi

International Journal of Anesthetics and Anesthesiology Editor-in-chief: Prof. Ike Eriator

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine Editor-in-chief: Prof. J David Prologo

Journal of Rheumatic Diseases and Treatment Editor-in-chief: Prof. Bruce M Rothschild

International Archives of Urology and Complications Editor-in-chief: Prof. Ajay Singla

International Journal of Psychology and Psychoanalysis Editor-in-chief: Prof. Joaquim JF Soares

Journal of Obesity and Weight-loss Medication Editor-in-chief: Prof. Timothy Koch

Trauma Cases and Reviews Editor-in-chief: Prof. William Min

Clinical Medical Image Library Editor-in-chief: Prof.

International Journal of Transplantation Research and Medicine Editor-in-chief: Prof. Lydia M Petrovic

Journal of Otolaryngology and Rhinology Editor-in-chief: Prof. John E. Nathan

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Editor-in-chief: Prof. Ryuichi Morishita

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine Editor-in-chief: Prof. Yasushi Shibata

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness Editor-in-chief: Prof. Erich Cosmi

International Journal of Brain Disorders and Treatment Editor-in-chief: Prof. Terry Lichtor

International Journal of Clinical Biostatistics and Biometrics Editor-in-chief: Prof. James Michael Hardin