Congenital heart disease is the most frequent malformation. In the most recent data has a prevalence of thirteen cases per 1,000 children and six cases per 1,000 adults. Great strides in pediatric cardiovascular surgery have increased the number of survivors, especially in adulthood. Nowadays more adults are living with congenital heart disease than children, particularly in developed countries, and more than two thirds fall into the categories of moderate and high complexity defects. This growing population called: Grown up congenital heart, requires super-specialized healthcare, the profile of the new cardiovascular patient differs from the traditional adult with heart disease, the first paradigm that should be broken is to understand that cardiovascular surgery is restorative (it substantially improves the hemodynamic condition), but is not 100% curative. Surgical and survival successes have turned the pediatric patient with congenital heart disease into an adult postoperative patient with residua, sequela and complications. The adult's postoperative heart is not a natural heart, it is a transformed, "neo-formed", heart.
They will have relapses and hospitalizations due decompensation to congenital heart disease. A new specialist profile is necessary. Training in adult congenital heart disease is valid beginning from both a pediatric and an adult cardiology environment. The special needs of this population are very costly for health systems. Recognize what are the main causes of decompensation is mandatory and finally adequate care decreases prolonged hospital stays and health system cost.